Primary Outcome Measures:
- Recurrent colitis due to Clostridium difficile [ Time Frame: six months ]
Patients will be followed 1, 7, 28, and 180 days after the treatment and success will be defined as resolution of C. difficile infection without recurrence within a six-month time period. Patients will be assessed by interview and physical exam. Any patients with suspected persisting/recurring C. difficile colitis will undergo further evaluation with a repeat stool C. difficile toxin assay.
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Tolerability of oral fecal microbiota transplantation [ Time Frame: six months ]
We will monitor for side effects during the administration of the fecal microbiota capsules by close observation within the clinic for one hour. All subjects will return 24 hours after administration for repeat examination and for repeat assessment of tolerability using a questionnaire. Symptoms that will be specifically monitored include the patient's subjective measure of nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping/pain, belching, diarrhea, constipation, and changes in the quantity or quality of stool.
- Safety of oral fecal microbiota transplantation [ Time Frame: six months ]
The main safety concern is for the transmission of infection from the donor to the recipient. At each follow-up visit (1, 7, 28, and 180 days after treatment) subjects will be assessed for any signs or symptoms of infection by history and physical exam. Some of the specific infections that will be considered will be infectious colitis, infection due to Helicobacter pylori, viral hepatitis, and HIV infection. Patients with signs or symptoms of a suspected infection will undergo appropriate workup with blood and/or stool studies.
- rate of repeat therapy for C. difficile colitis within 6 months of fecal microbiota transplantation. [ Time Frame: six months ]
All subjects will return for evaluation with a comprehensive history and physical exam 180 days after fecal microbiota transplantation, and patients will be asked if they have required any form of therapy for C. difficile colitis in the interim.
- Rate of hospitalization [ Time Frame: six months ]
- Mortality [ Time Frame: six months ]
Number of people who die
- Rate of adverse events [ Time Frame: six months ]
number of serious AE's occurring within 6 months of transplant
Recurrent colitis due to Clostridium difficile results from disruption of the normal gut flora, and is very difficult to treat. It is now clear that restoration of the normal gut flora is the most effective way to treat recurrent C. difficile colitis. Restoration of the normal gut flora is best done by transplanting stool from a healthy donor, and this is accepted as a superior therapeutic modality for recurrent C. difficile colitis. This fecal microbiota transplantation can be done with direct instillation of the donor stool into the GI tract via a naso-duodenal tube or colonoscope. Recently, a non-invasive method of stool transplantation has been developed where the donor stool is encapsulated and administered in pill form. The investigators would like to use fecal microbiota transplantation with encapsulated stool as a non-invasive therapy for patients with recurrent C. difficile colitis. To qualify, patients must have a history of, at least, 3 episodes of C difficile colitis within the past year or, at least, 2 episodes of C difficile colitis that resulted in hospitalization. Stool samples will be obtained from healthy volunteers who have been screened for infections that can be transmitted via stool, and the investigators will prepare capsules containing processed stool for administration during a single outpatient clinic visit. Patients will be followed closely after administration of the fecal transplant with serial clinic visits, and the primary endpoint will be prevention of any further episodes of C. difficile colitis in the six month period following transplantation. The investigators will also obtain and store stool samples from patients before and after fecal microbiota transplantation for possible future microbiome analyses. The obvious safety concern is the transmission of an infection from the donor. All donors will be carefully screened for high-risk exposures and will undergo testing of both blood and stool to ensure that they are free of infections due to HIV, acute hepatitis A, acute/chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and Helicobacter pylori.