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Pediatric Urgent Start of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) (PUSH)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02063880
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 17, 2014
Results First Posted : July 25, 2017
Last Update Posted : May 14, 2018
University of Nairobi
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Grace John-Stewart, University of Washington

Brief Summary:

Design: Randomized clinical trial involving hospitalized HIV-1 infected children. Children will be randomized to randomized to urgent (<48 hours) versus early antiretroviral therapy (7-14 days). This trial will be unblinded.

Population: Hospitalized HIV-1 infected children who are antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve ≤ 12 years of age.

Sample size: 360 children will be randomized (180 per arm).

Treatment: All infants will be treated with ART according to World Health Organization (WHO) and Kenyan national guidelines.

Study duration: Enrollment into the study will occur over the course of 36-48 months and each infant will be routinely followed for a maximum of 6 months.

Study site: Kenyan hospitals.

Primary hypothesis:

HIV-1 infected children hospitalized with severe co-infection either may be unsalvageable due to too far advanced immunosuppression/co-infection or may benefit from urgent ART.

Secondary hypotheses:

Urgent ART during an acute infection could potentially result in increased risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or drug toxicities/interactions.

Specific aims:

  1. To compare the 6 month all-cause mortality rate, incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), and incidence of drug toxicity in HIV-1 infected children (≤ 12 years old) presenting to hospital with a serious infection randomized to urgent (<48 hours) versus early ART (7-14 days).
  2. To determine co-factors for mortality, IRIS, and drug toxicity. Potential cofactors will include: baseline weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height (Z-scores), CD4, HIV-1 RNA, type of co-infection, age, rate of viral load and CD4 change following ART, immune activation markers, pathogen and HIV-1 specific immune responses.

Secondary aim: To determine etiologies of IRIS and to compare immune reconstitution to HIV, TB, EBV and CMV following ART overall and in each trial arm.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Other: Urgent ART Other: Early ART Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Children will be followed and compared for 6-month mortality.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 183 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Urgent Versus Post-Stabilization ART in HIV-1 Infected Children With Severe Co-Infections
Study Start Date : March 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Urgent ART

Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) within 48 hours of enrollment.

Antiretroviral therapy will include regimens recommended by the Kenyan Ministry of Health.

Other: Urgent ART
Children will be started on HAART <48 hours after enrollment.
Other Name: HAART regimens recommended by WHO and Kenya MOH.

Active Comparator: Early ART
Initiation of HAART 7-14 days after enrollment.
Other: Early ART
Children will be started on ART after stabilization 7-14 days after enrollment.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. All-cause Mortality [ Time Frame: 6 months post-HAART initiation ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants With Evidence of Immune Reconstitution and Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) [ Time Frame: 6 months post-HAART initiation ]
    Confirmed, possible or likely IRIS based on external independent review

  2. Number of Participants With Potential Drug Toxicity [ Time Frame: 6 months post-HAART initiation ]
    Participants with adverse events that are deemed to be potentially related to medications.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 12 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Aged ≤ 12 years old (reported)
  • HIV-1 positive (for example, two rapid HIV-1 antibody tests for children >18 months and not breastfeeding, or one HIV-1 DNA/RNA test for children ≤18 months or who are breastfeeding)
  • Not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy (history of pMTCT does not affect eligibility)
  • Eligible to receive ART, according to current WHO guidelines
  • Caregiver plans to reside in study catchment area for at least 6 months (reported)
  • Caregiver provides sufficient locator information

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Suspected meningitis, any other central nervous system infection, or encephalitis

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02063880

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Kisumu, Kenya
Kisumu District Hospital
Kisumu, Kenya
Mbagathi District Hospital
Nairobi, Kenya, 0202
Kenyatta National Hospital
Nairobi, Kenya
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
University of Nairobi
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
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Principal Investigator: Grace John Stewart, MD, PhD University of Washington
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

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Responsible Party: Grace John-Stewart, Professor, Global Health, University of Washington
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02063880    
Other Study ID Numbers: STUDY00001052
2R01HD023412-21 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: February 17, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: July 25, 2017
Last Update Posted: May 14, 2018
Last Verified: April 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: after primary and secondary outcomes are published

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: Yes
Keywords provided by Grace John-Stewart, University of Washington:
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
HIV Infections
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Blood-Borne Infections
Communicable Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases
Genital Diseases
Urogenital Diseases