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Study of Renal Denervation in Patients With Heart Failure (PRESERVE)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01954160
Recruitment Status : Terminated (DSMB decision based upon noted lack of efficacy in manufacturers pivotal trials.)
First Posted : October 1, 2013
Results First Posted : February 2, 2016
Last Update Posted : February 2, 2016
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Adrian Hernandez, Duke University

Brief Summary:
Congestive heart failure is a common disorder in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the needs of the rest of the body. Poor sodium handling by the kidneys is a damaging effect of heart failure, and it leads to symptoms of congestion such as shortness of breath or ankle swelling. Recent studies suggest that reducing the nerve activity to a kidney could reduce sodium retention and blood pressure. An improvement in the way the kidneys handle sodium may reduce disease progression and decrease symptoms for heart failure patients.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Heart Failure Device: Symplicity Renal Denervation Phase 2

Detailed Description:

Over the past decades, clinical trials in HF have been unable to alter the natural history of cardio-renal compromise. Fluid retention accounts for the majority of admissions for acute decompensated heart failure, and salt and water removal using intravenous (IV) diuretics has been the mainstay of therapy applied to this population.1 Over 20% of hospitalized patients in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE) had serum creatinine values greater than 2.0 mg/dL2 with the majority of congested patients presenting with significantly elevated systolic blood pressures rather than low-output states.1 Administration of IV loop diuretics further produces intravascular volume depletion and reduction in glomerular filtration rates3 as well as an increase in neurohormonal activation.4 This is true regardless of whether LVEF is impaired or preserved.5 However, despite relieving symptoms, acute drug administrations (such as adenosine receptor antagonists or natriuretic peptide analogues) for short durations have not changed the long-term cardio-renal outcomes in large clinical trials.

Recent recognition of different phenotypes of cardio-renal syndrome has provided better characterization of patient populations to evaluate specific treatment approaches or interventions.6 There is now greater appreciation that patients with congestive HF depend not only on an adequate glomerular function for renal glomerular filtration, but also on adequate tubular function for effective sodium handling that may or may not be dependent on glomerular filtration.7 Despite optimizing intracardiac filling pressures, many patients with August 28, 2013 Page 10 of 58 cardio-renal compromise remain symptomatic, complaining of breathlessness and fatigue often associated with concomitant increase in neurohormonal up-regulation (e.g. natriuretic peptides) and poor outcomes.8 Since the majority of patients present with hypertension, it points to the possibility that congestive HF is precipitated by heightened sympathetic drive.

Animal models have demonstrated that both blood pressure control and renal tubular function/glomerular filtration (as a function of renal blood flow) can be directly influenced by renal sympathetic nerve activity,9-12 which has evolved to provide cardiovascular support in the setting of hypovolemia or profound cardiovascular collapse. Specifically, HF animal models with denervated kidneys have demonstrated improvement in renal blood flow and natriuresis (with restoration of Na+-K+ ATPase at the loop of Henle, as well as epithelial sodium pumps at the distal tubules). However, our understanding of how persistently activated renal sympathetic outflow can lead to exaggerated neurohormonal up-regulation and chemoreceptor regulation in humans is still evolving. As heightened cardio-renal compromise leads to disease progression and congestive HF, it is conceivable that an approach to selectively modulate renal sympathetic outflow may improve cardio-renal compromise as well as the target mechanism leading to symptomatic improvement in at-risk patients.

By establishing the mechanistic role of renal sympathetic outflow in patients with impaired sodium handling as a contributor to congestion in HF, we may better understand why patients with HF develop symptoms, retain salt and water, and activate neurohormonal systems. This trial will be hypothesis generating and will serve to inform a larger clinical trial in patients with congestion related to HF.

The Data Safety and Monitoring Board (DSMB), an independent committee assigned by the sponsor to oversee the conduct and safety of this study, met on May 12, 2014 to review information that had become available from another study of the renal artery denervation procedure using the same investigational catheter as the PRESERVE study. Even though there were no concerns for the safety of subjects that had the renal artery denervation, the DSMB decided to stop the PRESERVE study.

Based upon agreement with the FDA, the protocol was amended to reduce subject participation from 52 weeks to 13 weeks and to only collect limited safety information.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 5 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Promotion of Renal Sodium Excretion by Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Congestive Heart Failure
Study Start Date : December 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2014

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Heart Failure

Arm Intervention/treatment
Early Symplicity Renal Denervation
Subjects undergo Symplicity Renal Denervation within 2 weeks of baseline visit will follow usual care after week 13 visit
Device: Symplicity Renal Denervation
Renal denervation

Late Symplicity Renal Denervation
Subjects following usual care until week 13 visit will then undergo Symplicity Renal Denervation within 2 weeks of Week 13 visit
Device: Symplicity Renal Denervation
Renal denervation

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Urine Sodium Excretion [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Within-subject comparison of increase in urine sodium excretion following saline loading before RSD and 13 weeks following RSD.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Urine Volume [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Urine volume following furosemide therapy after sodium loading.

  2. 24-hour Urine Sodium Excretion [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Difference in 24-hour urine sodium excretion, compared between pre-RSD and 13 weeks after RSD.

  3. Glomerular Filtration Rate [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) by creatinine and cystatin C

  4. Serum Cystatin C [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Study terminated early, endpoints not measured

  5. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Level [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Study terminated early, endpoints not measured

  6. Creatinine Clearance From 24-hour Urine Creatinine [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Study terminated early, endpoints not measured

  7. Urine Albumin [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Urine albumin

  8. Renal Resistive Index [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Intra-renal hemodynamics as measured by Renal Resistive Index (RRI) by renal Doppler ultrasonography Study terminated early, endpoints not measured

  9. Left Ventricular End Systolic Volume [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: Left ventricular end systolic volume Study terminated early, endpoints not measured

  10. Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Study terminated early, endpoints not measured

  11. Global Longitudinal Strain [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: Global longitudinal strain Study terminated early, endpoints not measured

  12. LV End Systolic Dimension (LVESd) [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: LV end systolic dimension (LVESd)

  13. LV End Diastolic Dimension (LVEDd) [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDd)

  14. Left Atrial Size [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: Left Atrial size

  15. Plasma N-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  16. Resting Plasma Norepinephrine [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  17. Resting Urine Norepinephrine [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  18. Plasma Renin Activity [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  19. Plasma Aldosterone [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  20. 6 Minute Walk Test [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  21. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  22. Patient Global Assessment [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  23. New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
  24. Heart Rate Variability [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Heart rate variability indices by Holter

  25. Tissue Doppler Indices [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: Tissue Doppler indices

  26. Left Ventricular End Diastolic Volume [ Time Frame: 13 Weeks following Renal Denervation ]
    Echo: Left Ventricular End Diastolic Volume

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male or female, aged 21-80 years old.
  • History of chronic HF (>6 months) with current NYHA II-III symptoms.
  • Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction ≤40% on a clinically indicated echocardiogram obtained within 6 months prior to informed consent.
  • Requires daily loop diuretic (≥40mg furosemide per day, or equivalent) to maintain euvolemia (absence of congestive signs including jugular venous distension with Jugular Venous Pressure > 7cm H20, ≥ moderate (2+) peripheral edema, S3).
  • Optimized medical therapy for HF. Patients will be receiving guideline-recommended therapy (per the 2013 ACCF/AHA HF Guidelines) including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blocker, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists without changes in heart failure medication regimen (including diuretics) for previous 14 days.
  • Systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥110 mmHg at time of informed consent.
  • Able to maintain stable medications for 52 weeks.
  • Suitable renal artery anatomy for Renal Sympathetic Denervation (RSD) procedure. All of the following criteria must be met, based on the screening renal Doppler ultrasound:
  • ≥ 20mm treatable length in each renal artery,
  • Diameter in treatable segments must be ≥4mm,
  • Lone main renal vessel feeding each kidney.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Unable to comply with protocol or procedures.
  • Evidence of orthostatic hypotension or known dysautonomia. Orthostatic hypotension is defined by ≥1 of the following feature(s) within 2-5 minutes of quiet standing:
  • ≥ 20 mmHg fall in systolic pressure
  • ≥ 10 mmHg fall in diastolic pressure
  • Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion (e.g. dizziness or lightheadedness, visual blurring or darkening of the visual fields, syncope).
  • Evidence of or history of renal artery stenosis, nephrectomy, or renal transplant.
  • Significant renal impairment as defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 45 ml/min/1.73m2 determined by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation.
  • Significant proteinuria (>2g protein/daily protein excretion).
  • Body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2.
  • Acute coronary syndrome within last 4 weeks as defined by ECG changes and biomarkers of myocardial necrosis (e.g. troponin) in an appropriate clinical setting (chest discomfort or angina equivalent).
  • Coronary revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or cardiac artery bypass graft) and or valve surgery within 30 days of screening or expected procedures within the next 6 months.
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy, with or without implantable cardiac defibrillator within 90 days of screening or expected procedures within the next 6 months.
  • Hypertrophic or restrictive cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, active myocarditis, active endocarditis, or complex congenital heart disease.
  • Severe advanced HF, with ANY of the following features:
  • Current or anticipated use of ventricular assist device within the next 6 months.
  • Current or anticipated IV vasoactive drug therapy for HF management within the next 6 months.
  • Listed cardiac transplant candidate, with transplantation likely within the next 6 months.
  • Known allergic reactions to iodinated radiological contrast media or iodinated antiseptics.
  • Greater than moderate mitral or aortic stenosis, and/or severe tricuspid regurgitation.
  • Terminal illness (other than HF) with expected survival of less than 1 year.
  • Female who is pregnant, nursing, or of childbearing potential not practicing effective birth control.
  • Enrollment or planned enrollment in another clinical trial within the next 12 months.
  • History of urinary outflow tract obstruction, bladder retention and/ or moderate to severe prostate hypertrophy.
  • History of adrenal insufficiency
  • History of untreated hypothyroidism
  • Patients with non-cardiac dyspnea or fatigue due to frailty, motivational factors, pulmonary disease or orthopedic problems that precludes them from performing 6MWT (Six-Minute WalkTest).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01954160

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United States, Georgia
Emory University
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30322
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02130
Tufts Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02153
United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
United States, Missouri
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110
United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27705
United States, Ohio
Metro Health System
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44115
Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
United States, Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania Health System
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19107
United States, Vermont
The University of Vermont - Fletcher Allen Health Care
Burlington, Vermont, United States, 05401
Sponsors and Collaborators
Adrian Hernandez
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
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Principal Investigator: Adrian Hernandez, MD Duke University
Study Chair: Eugene Braunwald, MD Harvard University
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Responsible Party: Adrian Hernandez, Associate Professor, Duke University Identifier: NCT01954160    
Other Study ID Numbers: Pro00047050
5U10HL084904 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: October 1, 2013    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: February 2, 2016
Last Update Posted: February 2, 2016
Last Verified: December 2015
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Heart Failure
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases