Finding the Optimum Regimen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FOR-DMD)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01603407
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : May 23, 2012
Last Update Posted : March 5, 2018
Newcastle University
University Medical Center Freiburg
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Robert Griggs, MD, University of Rochester

Brief Summary:
The Finding the Optimum Regimen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FOR DMD) study will compare three ways of giving corticosteroids to boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) to determine which of the three ways increases muscle strength the most, and which causes the fewest side effects. Using the results of this study, the investigators aim to provide patients and families with clearer information about the best way to take these drugs.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Drug: Prednisone Drug: Deflazacort Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy experience progressive muscle weakness as they grow up. Corticosteroids are currently the only medicine that has been shown to increase muscle strength in boys with DMD. Benefits include an increase in the length of time that boys could continue to walk, reduction in the development of curvature of the spine, a longer time of adequate breathing, and possible protection against the development of heart problems.

Doctors have tried different ways of prescribing corticosteroids in order to decrease undesirable side effects of the drug. No controlled, long-term study has ever looked at the effects of different corticosteroids to see which one improves strength the most and which one causes the fewest side effects, over a period of time. Different doctors in different countries prescribe the drugs in different ways, and some do not prescribe corticosteroids at all.

The FOR DMD study will enroll boys with DMD ages 4-7. The study will look at three ways of taking the following corticosteroids by the mouth to determine which increases muscle strength the most, and which causes the fewest side effects:

  1. Prednisone 0.75mg/kg/day
  2. Prednisone 0.75mg/kg/day switching between 10 days on and 10 days off treatment
  3. Deflazacort 0.9mg/kg/day.

The study will take place at 40 academic medical centers in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany and Italy.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 196 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Double-blind Randomized Trial to Find Optimum Steroid Regimen
Study Start Date : January 2013
Estimated Primary Completion Date : October 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : October 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Daily prednisone
daily prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day)
Drug: Prednisone
daily prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day) tablets for 36-60 months
Experimental: Intermittent prednisone
intermittent prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day, 10 days on, 10 days off)
Drug: Prednisone
intermittent prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day, 10 days on, 10 days off) tablets for 36 to 60 months
Experimental: Daily deflazacort
daily deflazacort (0.9 mg/kg/day
Drug: Deflazacort
daily deflazacort (0.9 mg/kg/day) tablets for 36-60 months

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Three-dimensional (multivariate) outcome [ Time Frame: See description below ]

    Three-dimensional outcome consisting of the following three components (each averaged over the Month 3, Month 6, Month 12, Month 18, Month 24, Month 30, and Month 36 visits):

    1. time to stand from lying (log-transformed)
    2. forced vital capacity
    3. subject/parent global satisfaction with treatment, as measured by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. The North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) [ Time Frame: Once during screening period (1 to 3 months prior to baseline visit), then again at Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60 ]
    17 Item timed function tests to evaluate the motor ability in ambulant children with DMD. Timed Function Test Grading to differentiate those subjects with similarly fast times who may achieve a ceiling time Total score = Sum of all graded items. Of primary interest will be the average value of these outcomes over all post-baseline visits over the three year follow-up period

  2. 6 minute walk test [ Time Frame: Once during screening period (1 to 3 months prior to baseline visit), then again at Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 ]
    Measures the total distance walked in 6 minutes and the number of falls averaged over all post-baseline follow-up visits through Month 36

  3. Range of motion (goniometry) [ Time Frame: Once during screening period (1 to 3 months prior to baseline visit), then again at Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 ]
    Range of motion at the ankle joint in dorsiflexion measured in degrees from plantigrade

  4. Regimen tolerance [ Time Frame: Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 ]
    Assess the ability to tolerate the starting regimen of corticosteroids, defined as completing 3-5 years of follow-up on study medication with no deviation from the initially prescribed dosage level (increases in dosage band to accommodate growth and weight gain are allowed)

  5. Adverse event profile [ Time Frame: Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 ]
    The occurrence and severity of the following predictable adverse events (i.e., known side effects of corticosteroids) will be recorded. Behavior problems, bone fractures, cataracts, cushingoid features, GI symptoms, hypertension, immune/adrenal suppression, slow growth (height restriction), skin changes, weight gain, diabetes

  6. Quality of life [ Time Frame: Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 ]

    Measured by child self-report (only in children aged 5 years and over) and by proxy (parent(s)/guardian(s)) report for all children. Utilizing Generic Peds QoL (23 questions ) NMD Disease-specific module will be used (25 questions).

    The average values of these outcomes over all post-baseline assessments during the three-year follow-up period will be of primary interest.

  7. Cardiac function Cardiac function [ Time Frame: One to three months prior to the baseline visit, then every two years to the age of 10 years, and annually thereafter or at the onset of cardiac signs and symptoms and the year 3 visit ]
    Monitored by trans-thoracic echocardiogram and 12-lead ECG. The findings will be categorized as: normal; abnormal but not clinically significant;abnormal and clinically significant. The earliest definite, echo detectable impairment of left ventricular function is defined as ejection fraction < 55% and/or fractional shortening < 28%.Monitorred 12-lead ECG. If echocardiogram shows any impaired left ventricular function or evidence of regional motion abnormalities (posterior wall), the interval between evaluations will be reduced and treatment will be initiated

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Ages Eligible for Study:   4 Years to 7 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Evidence of signed and dated informed consent form.
  • Confirmed diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Age greater than or equal to 4 years and less than 8 years old
  • Ability to rise independently from floor, from supine to standing
  • Willingness and ability to comply with scheduled visits, drug administration plan and study procedures
  • Ability to maintain reproducible FVC measurements.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of major renal or hepatic impairment, immunosuppression or other contraindications to corticosteroid therapy.
  • History of chronic systemic fungal or viral infections. Acute bacterial infection(including TB) would exclude from enrolment until the infection had been appropriately treated and resolved.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Idiopathic hypercalcuria.
  • Lack of chicken pox immunity and refusal to undergo immunization.
  • Evidence of symptomatic cardiomyopathy at screening assessment (one to three months prior to the baseline visit). Asymptomatic cardiac abnormality on investigation would not be an exclusion.
  • Current or previous treatment (greater than four consecutive weeks of oral therapy) with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive treatments for DMD or other recurrent indications (e.g., asthma), unless approved by FOR-DMD Team (i.e., concurrent participation in another allowed DMD trial).
  • Inability to take tablets, as assessed by the site investigator by the end of the screening period (the screening period ranges from one to three months prior to the baseline visit).
  • Allergy/sensitivity to study drugs or their formulations including lactose and/or sucrose intolerance.
  • Severe behavioral problems, including severe autism.
  • Previous or ongoing medical condition, medical history, physical findings or laboratory abnormalities that could affect safety, make it unlikely that treatment and follow up will be correctly completed or impair the assessment of study results, in the judgment of the site investigator.
  • Weight of less than 13 kilograms.
  • Exposure to any investigational drug currently or within 3 months prior to start of study treatment.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01603407

  Hide Study Locations
United States, California
University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90095
University of California Davis Medical Center
Sacramento, California, United States, 95817
United States, District of Columbia
Children's National Medical Center
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20010
United States, Florida
Nemours Children's Hospital
Orlando, Florida, United States, 32827
United States, Illinois
Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60614
United States, Kansas
University of Kansas Medical Center
Kansas City, Kansas, United States, 66160
United States, Massachusetts
Boston Children's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
United States, New Mexico
University of New Mexico Health Science Center
Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 87131
United States, New York
University of Rochester Medical Center
Rochester, New York, United States, 14642
United States, North Carolina
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599
United States, Ohio
Nationwide Children's Hospital
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43205
United States, Pennsylvania
Penn State Hershey Medical Center
Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States, 17033
United States, Tennessee
Vanderbilt Children's Hospital
Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 37232
United States, Utah
University of Utah Medical Center
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84132
Canada, Alberta
Alberta Children's Hospital
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T3B 6A8
Canada, Ontario
Children's Hospital London Health Sciences Centre
London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4G5
Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H 8L1
Children's Hospital, Technical University Dresden
Dresden, Germany, 01307
University Hospital of Essen
Essen, Germany, 45122
University Medical Center Freiburg
Freiburg, Germany, 79110
Children's University Hospital, Göttingen
Göttingen, Germany, 37075
University of Messina AOU Policlinico Gaetano Martino
Messina, Italy, 98125
C. Besta Neurological Institute Foundation
Milan, Italy, 20133
University of Padova School of Medicine
Padova, Italy, 35128
Neuromuscular Center University of Turin
Torino, Italy, 10126
United Kingdom
The General Infirmary at Leeds
Leeds, England, United Kingdom, LS2 9NS
Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHS Yorkhill Hospital
Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, G3 8SJ
Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust Birmingham Heartland's Hospital
Birmingham, United Kingdom, B9 5SS
Alder Hey Children's Hospital NHS Trust
Liverpool, United Kingdom, L12 2AP
Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust
London, United Kingdom, WC1N 3JH
Royal Manchester Children's Hospital
Manchester, United Kingdom, M13 9WL
Institute of Human Genetics, International Centre for Life
Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom, NE1 3BZ
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Rochester
Newcastle University
University Medical Center Freiburg
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Principal Investigator: Robert C. Griggs, MD University of Rochester
Principal Investigator: Kate Bushby, MD Newcastle University


Responsible Party: Robert Griggs, MD, Professor of Neurology, University of Rochester Identifier: NCT01603407     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: U01NS061799 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
2010-023744-33 ( EudraCT Number )
46102316 ( Registry Identifier: ISRCTN )
First Posted: May 23, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 5, 2018
Last Verified: March 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Robert Griggs, MD, University of Rochester:
muscular dystrophy
neuromuscular disease

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Muscular Dystrophies
Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne
Muscular Disorders, Atrophic
Muscular Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Neuromuscular Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Genetic Diseases, X-Linked
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors