Now Available: Final Rule for FDAAA 801 and NIH Policy on Clinical Trial Reporting

Finding the Optimum Regimen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FOR-DMD)

This study is currently recruiting participants. (see Contacts and Locations)
Verified May 2016 by University of Rochester
Newcastle University
University Medical Center Freiburg
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Robert Griggs, MD, University of Rochester Identifier:
First received: April 3, 2012
Last updated: May 13, 2016
Last verified: May 2016
The Finding the Optimum Regimen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FOR DMD) study will compare three ways of giving corticosteroids to boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) to determine which of the three ways increases muscle strength the most, and which causes the fewest side effects. Using the results of this study, the investigators aim to provide patients and families with clearer information about the best way to take these drugs.

Condition Intervention Phase
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Drug: Prednisone
Drug: Deflazacort
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Caregiver, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Double-blind Randomized Trial to Find Optimum Steroid Regimen

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Rochester:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Three-dimensional (multivariate) outcome [ Time Frame: See description below ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Three-dimensional outcome consisting of the following three components (each averaged over the Month 3, Month 6, Month 12, Month 18, Month 24, Month 30, and Month 36 visits):

    1. time to stand from lying (log-transformed)
    2. forced vital capacity
    3. subject/parent global satisfaction with treatment, as measured by the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • The North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) [ Time Frame: Once during screening period (1 to 3 months prior to baseline visit), then again at Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    17 Item timed function tests to evaluate the motor ability in ambulant children with DMD. Timed Function Test Grading to differentiate those subjects with similarly fast times who may achieve a ceiling time Total score = Sum of all graded items. Of primary interest will be the average value of these outcomes over all post-baseline visits over the three year follow-up period

  • 6 minute walk test [ Time Frame: Once during screening period (1 to 3 months prior to baseline visit), then again at Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Measures the total distance walked in 6 minutes and the number of falls averaged over all post-baseline follow-up visits

  • Range of motion (goniometry) [ Time Frame: Once during screening period (1 to 3 months prior to baseline visit), then again at Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Range of motion at the ankle joint in dorsiflexion measured in degrees from plantigrade

  • Regimen tolerance [ Time Frame: Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Assess the ability to tolerate the starting regimen of corticosteroids, defined as completing 3-5 years of follow-up on study medication with no deviation from the initially prescribed dosage level (increases in dosage band to accommodate growth and weight gain are allowed)

  • Adverse event profile [ Time Frame: Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    The occurrence and severity of the following predictable adverse events (i.e., known side effects of corticosteroids) will be recorded. Behavior problems, bone fractures, cataracts, cushingoid features, GI symptoms, hypertension, immune/adrenal suppression, slow growth (height restriction), skin changes, weight gain, diabetes

  • Quality of life [ Time Frame: Baseline visit (Month 0), Month 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

    Measured by child self-report (only in children aged 5 years and over) and by proxy (parent(s)/guardian(s)) report for all children. Utilizing Generic Peds QoL (23 questions ) NMD Disease-specific module will be used (25 questions).

    The average values of these outcomes over all post-baseline assessments during the three-year follow-up period will be of primary interest.

  • Cardiac function Cardiac function [ Time Frame: One to three months prior to the baseline visit, then every two years to the age of 10 years, and annually thereafter or at the onset of cardiac signs and symptoms and the year 3 visit ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Monitored by trans-thoracic echocardiogram and 12-lead ECG. The findings will be categorized as: normal; abnormal but not clinically significant;abnormal and clinically significant. The earliest definite, echo detectable impairment of left ventricular function is defined as ejection fraction < 55% and/or fractional shortening < 28%.Monitorred 12-lead ECG. If echocardiogram shows any impaired left ventricular function or evidence of regional motion abnormalities (posterior wall), the interval between evaluations will be reduced and treatment will be initiated

Estimated Enrollment: 225
Study Start Date: January 2013
Estimated Study Completion Date: August 2019
Estimated Primary Completion Date: August 2019 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Daily prednisone
daily prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day)
Drug: Prednisone
daily prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day) tablets for 36-60 months
Experimental: Intermittent prednisone
intermittent prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day, 10 days on, 10 days off)
Drug: Prednisone
intermittent prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day, 10 days on, 10 days off) tablets for 36 to 60 months
Experimental: Daily deflazacort
daily deflazacort (0.9 mg/kg/day
Drug: Deflazacort
daily deflazacort (0.9 mg/kg/day) tablets for 36-60 months

Detailed Description:

Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy experience progressive muscle weakness as they grow up. Corticosteroids are currently the only medicine that has been shown to increase muscle strength in boys with DMD. Benefits include an increase in the length of time that boys could continue to walk, reduction in the development of curvature of the spine, a longer time of adequate breathing, and possible protection against the development of heart problems.

Doctors have tried different ways of prescribing corticosteroids in order to decrease undesirable side effects of the drug. No controlled, long-term study has ever looked at the effects of different corticosteroids to see which one improves strength the most and which one causes the fewest side effects, over a period of time. Different doctors in different countries prescribe the drugs in different ways, and some do not prescribe corticosteroids at all.

The FOR DMD study will enroll boys with DMD ages 4-7. The study will look at three ways of taking the following corticosteroids by the mouth to determine which increases muscle strength the most, and which causes the fewest side effects:

  1. Prednisone 0.75mg/kg/day
  2. Prednisone 0.75mg/kg/day switching between 10 days on and 10 days off treatment
  3. Deflazacort 0.9mg/kg/day.

The study will take place at 40 academic medical centers in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany and Italy.


Ages Eligible for Study:   4 Years to 7 Years   (Child)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Evidence of signed and dated informed consent form.
  • Confirmed diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • Age greater than or equal to 4 years and less than 8 years old
  • Ability to rise independently from floor, from supine to standing
  • Willingness and ability to comply with scheduled visits, drug administration plan and study procedures
  • Ability to maintain reproducible FVC measurements.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of major renal or hepatic impairment, immunosuppression or other contraindications to corticosteroid therapy.
  • History of chronic systemic fungal or viral infections. Acute bacterial infection(including TB) would exclude from enrolment until the infection had been appropriately treated and resolved.
  • Diabetes mellitus.
  • Idiopathic hypercalcuria.
  • Lack of chicken pox immunity and refusal to undergo immunization.
  • Evidence of symptomatic cardiomyopathy at screening assessment (one to three months prior to the baseline visit). Asymptomatic cardiac abnormality on investigation would not be an exclusion.
  • Current or previous treatment (greater than four consecutive weeks of oral therapy) with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive treatments for DMD or other recurrent indications (e.g., asthma).
  • Inability to take tablets, as assessed by the site investigator by the end of the screening period (the screening period ranges from one to three months prior to the baseline visit).
  • Allergy/sensitivity to study drugs or their formulations including lactose and/or sucrose intolerance.
  • Severe behavioral problems, including severe autism.
  • Previous or ongoing medical condition, medical history, physical findings or laboratory abnormalities that could affect safety, make it unlikely that treatment and follow up will be correctly completed or impair the assessment of study results, in the judgment of the site investigator.
  • Weight of less than 13 kilograms.
  • Exposure to any investigational drug currently or within 3 months prior to start of study treatment.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01603407

Contact: Kimberly Hart 585-275-3767

  Hide Study Locations
United States, California
University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center Recruiting
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90095
Contact: Katrina Nguyen    310-206-9089   
Principal Investigator: Perry Shieh, MD, PhD         
University of California Davis Medical Center Recruiting
Sacramento, California, United States, 95817
Contact: Randev Sandhu    916-734-4303   
Principal Investigator: Craig McDonald, MD         
United States, District of Columbia
Children's National Medical Center Recruiting
Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20010
Contact: Allyn Toles    202-476-4802   
Principal Investigator: Mathula Thangarajh, MD         
United States, Florida
Nemours Children's Hospital Recruiting
Orlando, Florida, United States, 32827
Contact: Melisa Vega    407-650-7634   
Principal Investigator: Richard Finkel, MD         
United States, Illinois
Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago Recruiting
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60614
Contact: Theresa Oswald    312-227-3019   
Principal Investigator: Nancy Kuntz, MD         
United States, Kansas
University of Kansas Medical Center Recruiting
Kansas City, Kansas, United States, 66160
Contact: Gabrielle Rico    913-588-5703   
Principal Investigator: Richard Barohn, MD         
United States, Maryland
The Kennedy Krieger Institute Terminated
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21205
United States, Massachusetts
Boston Children's Hospital Recruiting
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
Contact: Lavanya Madabusi    617-919-3554   
Principal Investigator: Basil Darras, MD         
United States, Minnesota
University of Minnesota Withdrawn
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55455
United States, New Mexico
University of New Mexico Health Science Center Recruiting
Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 87131
Contact: Ashley Wegele    505-272-3194   
Principal Investigator: Leslie A. Morrison, MD         
United States, New York
University of Rochester Medical Center Recruiting
Rochester, New York, United States, 14642
Contact: Debra Guntrum    585-276-3037   
Principal Investigator: Emma Ciafaloni, MD         
United States, North Carolina
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Recruiting
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599
Contact: Manisha Chopra    919-843-7857   
Principal Investigator: James Howard, MD         
United States, Ohio
Nationwide Children's Hospital Recruiting
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43205
Contact: Jessica Barger    614-722-2238   
Principal Investigator: Kevin Flanigan, MD         
United States, Pennsylvania
Penn State Hershey Medical Center Recruiting
Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States, 17033
Contact: Heidi Runk    717-531-0003 ext 287177   
Principal Investigator: Matthew Wicklund, MD         
United States, Tennessee
Vanderbilt Children's Hospital Recruiting
Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 37232
Contact: Diana Davis    615-322-8957    diana.davis@Vanderbilt.Edu   
Principal Investigator: William B Burnette, MD         
United States, Utah
University of Utah Medical Center Recruiting
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84132
Contact: Becky Crockett    801-581-7978   
Principal Investigator: Russell Butterfield, MD, PhD         
Canada, Alberta
Alberta Children's Hospital Recruiting
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T3B 6A8
Contact: Natalia Rincon    403-955-3192   
Principal Investigator: Jean K. Mah, MD         
Canada, British Columbia
University of British Columbia Children's Hospital Recruiting
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6H 3V4
Contact: Nela Martic    604-875-2345 ext 6549   
Principal Investigator: Kathryn Selby, MD         
Canada, Ontario
Children's Hospital London Health Sciences Centre Recruiting
London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4G5
Contact: Rhiannon Hicks    (519) 685-8441   
Principal Investigator: Craig Campbell, MD         
Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) Recruiting
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H 8L1
Contact: Angie Tuttle    613-737-7600 ext 4439   
Principal Investigator: Hugh McMillan, MD         
Children's Hospital, Technical University Dresden Recruiting
Dresden, Germany, 01307
Contact: Katja Uhlitzch   
Principal Investigator: Maja van der Hagen         
University Hospital of Essen Recruiting
Essen, Germany, 45122
Contact: Corinna Seifert   
Principal Investigator: Ulrike Schara         
University Medical Center Freiburg Recruiting
Freiburg, Germany, 79110
Contact: Ursula Wein   
Principal Investigator: Janbernd Kirschner         
Children's University Hospital, Göttingen Recruiting
Göttingen, Germany, 37075
Contact: Anja Nolte   
Principal Investigator: Ekkehard Wilichowski         
IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, University of Pisa Not yet recruiting
Calambrone, Pisa, Italy, I-56018
Contact: Anna Rubegni   
Principal Investigator: Fillipo Santorelli, MD         
IRCCS E. Medea, Bosisio-Parini (Lecco) Withdrawn
Bosisio-Parini, Italy, 23842
University of Messina AOU Policlinico Gaetano Martino Recruiting
Messina, Italy, 98125
Contact: Sonia Messina   
Principal Investigator: Giuseppe Vita         
C. Besta Neurological Institute Foundation Recruiting
Milan, Italy, 20133
Contact: Lucia Morandi   
Principal Investigator: Lucia Morandi         
Second University of Naples Recruiting
Naples, Italy, 80135
Contact: Louisa Politano   
Principal Investigator: Louisa Politano         
University of Padova School of Medicine Recruiting
Padova, Italy, 35128
Contact: Elena Pegoraro   
Principal Investigator: Elena Pegoraro, MD         
Neuromuscular Center University of Turin Recruiting
Torino, Italy, 10126
Contact: Tiziana Mongini   
Principal Investigator: Federica Ricci, MD         
United Kingdom
Addenbrookes Hospital (University of Cambridge) Recruiting
Cambridge, England, United Kingdom, CB2 0QQ
Contact: Andrew Hiscock    07944 456443   
Principal Investigator: Guatam Ambegaonkar, MD         
The General Infirmary at Leeds Recruiting
Belmont Grove, Leeds, United Kingdom, LS2 9NS
Contact: Neil Hall    22629/0113 3922629   
Principal Investigator: Anne-Marie Childs, MBChB, MRCP         
Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHS Yorkhill Hospital Recruiting
Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, G3 8SJ
Contact: Jennifer Dunne    0141 201 0790   
Principal Investigator: Iain Horrocks, MbChB, MRCP         
Children's Centre, University Hospital of Wales Withdrawn
Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, CF14 4XW
Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust Birmingham Heartland's Hospital Recruiting
Birmingham, United Kingdom, B9 5SS
Contact: Alison Corbett    0121 333 8739   
Principal Investigator: Helen P. Roper, MBChB, MD         
Alder Hey Children's Hospital NHS Trust Recruiting
Liverpool, United Kingdom, L12 2AP
Contact: Lisa Hughes    0151 282 4755   
Principal Investigator: Stefan Spinty, MRCPCH         
Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust Recruiting
London, United Kingdom, WC1N 3JH
Contact: Chile Uzowuru    020 7905 2639 ext 2639   
Principal Investigator: Adnan Manzur, MBBS, MRCP         
Sub-Investigator: Francesco Muntoni, MD         
Royal Manchester Children's Hospital Recruiting
Manchester, United Kingdom, M13 9WL
Contact: Frances Binici    0161 701 0679   
Principal Investigator: Imelda Hughes, MBBCh, MRCP         
Institute of Human Genetics, International Centre for Life Recruiting
Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom, NE1 3BZ
Contact: Becky Davis    0191 2418663   
Principal Investigator: Volker Straub, MD, PhD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Rochester
Newcastle University
University Medical Center Freiburg
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Principal Investigator: Robert C. Griggs, MD University of Rochester
Principal Investigator: Kate Bushby, MD Newcastle University
  More Information


Responsible Party: Robert Griggs, MD, Professor of Neurology, University of Rochester Identifier: NCT01603407     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: U01NS061799  2010-023744-33  46102316 
Study First Received: April 3, 2012
Last Updated: May 13, 2016
Health Authority: United States: Food and Drug Administration
United States: Institutional Review Board
United Kingdom: Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency
United Kingdom: National Health Service
United Kingdom: Research Ethics Committee
Italy: Ethics Committee
Italy: The Italian Medicines Agency
Germany: Ethics Commission
Germany: Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices
Germany: Federal Office for Radiation Protection
Canada: Ethics Review Committee
Canada: Health Canada
Individual Participant Data  
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by University of Rochester:
muscular dystrophy
neuromuscular disease

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Muscular Dystrophies
Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne
Muscular Disorders, Atrophic
Muscular Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Neuromuscular Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Genetic Diseases, X-Linked
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors processed this record on December 09, 2016