Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy by I-123 MIBG
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01432626|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 13, 2011
Results First Posted : March 22, 2016
Last Update Posted : March 22, 2016
Objective: The objective of this pilot study is to characterize the cardiac uptake patterns of I-123 mIBG in stress-induced (Takotsubo's) cardiomyopathy.
Hypothesis: Perturbations in sympathetic innervation are the underlying pathogenesis of stress induced cardiomyopathy and will result in abnormalities in I-123 mIBG cardiac imaging. Thus, planar and SPECT I-123 MIBG imaging will provide insight into the pathogenesis of stress-induced cardiomyopathy, and may lead to the development of more specific diagnostic criteria.
Study design: This proposal is for a prospective pilot study to characterize perturbations in cardiac sympathetic innervation in patients with stress induced cardiomyopathy by performing planar and SPECT I-123 MIBG imaging during the acute presentation and after recovery of LV function.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy||Drug: I-123 radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac imaging||Not Applicable|
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Background: Since the initial Japanese description of Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy in 1991 as a transient systolic dysfunction of the apical or mid left ventricular segments in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease, stress induced cardiomyopathy has been increasingly recognized in the Unites States. Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy accounts for 1.2 to 2.2 percent of all cases of acute coronary syndrome. The current American Heart Association Statistical Update estimates that approximately 1.2 million Americans will experience an acute coronary event in 2010. Based on this estimate, between 15 and 26 thousand Americans will have stress induced cardiomyopathy annually. Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy has also been described in stroke and critically ill patients. Post menopausal women are disproportionally affected, accounting for 80 to 100 percent of the patient population. These patients classically present with signs of acute heart failure or acute coronary syndrome after a severe emotional stress. The presentation may include chest pain, shortness of breath, elevated troponin enzymes, ST segment elevations, deep T-wave inversions, ventricular arrhythmias, pulmonary edema or elevated biomarkers. Cardiac catheterization reveals angiographically normal coronary arteries while the ventriculogram and the echocardiogram shows apical ballooning with basal hyperkinesis. While the majority of patients recover complete function within few days to two weeks, up to eight percent of the patients will die from the acute heart failure.
The etiology of stress-induced cardiomyopathy remains speculative. Catecholamine excess leading to microvascular dysfunction or direct cardiomyocyte toxicity is hypothesized as the most likely etiology. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that most patients with Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy experience an intense physical or emotional stress. Furthermore, several other observations support this hypothesis. First, catecholamines levels are elevated in patients with stress induced cardiomyopathy at presentation when compared to patients with acute coronary syndrome. Second, multi-vessel coronary vasospasm and transient myocardial perfusion defects have been identified repeatedly in this population. Third, myocardial biopsies show myocarditis, interstitial fibrosis and mononuclear infiltrates, signs consistent with catecholamine toxicity. Fourth, in a mouse model, elevated epinephrine levels cause a switch from beta-2 adrenoreceptor mediated Gs protein signaling to Gi protein signaling, which is negatively inotropic. These findings all support the theory that there is altered sympathetic activity in patients with stress induced cardiomyopathy.
Thus, based on the existing knowledge base of this intriguing disease, an imaging approach that specifically evaluates the sympathetic activation state of the myocardium would appear to be ideally suited to further explore pathophysiology. I-123 radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine, (mIBG) imaging allows for direct analysis of cardiac sympathetic function because it is structurally similar to norepinephrine (NE), and is transported into the cardiac sympathetic neurons by human norepinephrine transporter 1 ( hNET1), in the synaptic cleft. Unlike NE, mIBG is not metabolized by monoamine oxidase or catechol-o-methyl transferase. mIBG requires an intact myocardial sympathetic nervous system for uptake, is stored in the presynaptic vesicles and is released by stimulation with acetylcholine. Experimental manipulation of cardiac sympathetic function alters mIBG uptake and distribution. Planar imaging acquisition enables evaluation of sympathetic activation, while SPECT characterizes regional abnormalities. Measurement of the heart to mediastinal ratio during early and delayed planimetry assesses the initial uptake and washout of the tracer. mIBG uptake follows one of three general patterns: good uptake and retention, good uptake with washout or poor uptake. The different patterns likely represent the level of sympathetic activation, increase in sympathetic tone and heart failure-induced damage to the myocardial sympathetic nervous system. mIBG uptake is altered in patient with diabetic neuropathy, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction. The uptake and washout patterns correlate with severity of neuropathy, severity of congestive heart failure, congestive heart failure treatment response, improvement in ejection fraction, cardiac death and ventricular arrhythmogenic potential.
Preliminary data in patients with Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy has shown decrease in mIBG uptake with an increased washout in the acute phase, with improved retention after left ventricular functional recovery. Furthermore, regional decrease in tracer uptake corresponds to the regional wall motion abnormalities. However, a systematic exploration of mIBG uptake patterns in consecutive patients with Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy has not been performed. Of note, PET imaging with 11C Hydroxyephedrine has described similar sympathetic dysfunction in Takotsubo's cardiomyopathy.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||10 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||The Evaluation of the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy by I-123 MIBG Imaging|
|Study Start Date :||September 2011|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||December 2014|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||June 2015|
Experimental: Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy Patients
Patients presenting with stress induced cardiomyopathy, after meeting the Mayo criteria (normal coronary anatomy, EKG changes/Enzyme abnormalities, wall motion abnormalities consistent with stress induced cardiomyopathy and no evidence of pheochromocytoma) and signing informed consent, will receive an I123-mIBG scan to determine the sympathetic function of the heart during the acute presentation and after functional recovery.
Drug: I-123 radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac imaging
All subjects will receive an intravenous injection of 10 mCi (370 MBq) of 123I-mIBG. A ±10% tolerance of the nominal dose will be allowed, thus yielding an acceptable dose range of 9 to 11 mCi (333 to 407 MBq). The investigational medicinal product will be administered in a volume of 5 mL (diluted using 0.9% sodium chloride as needed) and injected over 1 to 2 minutes. The patient will have planar and SPECT imaging performed after the dose is administered. This dosing and imaging procedure will be performed during the acute phase and after the patient has recovered cardiac function, approximately 6 weeks later. This means that each study subject will receive a total of 2 doses of I123-mIBG at 2 different time points.
Other Name: AdreVeiw
- Number of Participants Who Had an Abnormal Regional Uptake of I-123 mIBG at Baseline (Acute Phase) and the Number of Participants Who Had an Abnormal I-123 mIBG Uptake on Follow up (Recovery Phase) [ Time Frame: During the acute phase (2-5 days with an expected mean 3 days) and after recovery of cardiac function (6 weeks) ]Number of participants who had an abnormal regional uptake of I-123 mIBG at baseline (acute phase) and the number of participants who had an abnormal I-123 mIBG uptake on follow up (recovery phase)
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01432626
|United States, Pennsylvania|
|University of Pittsburgh Medical Center|
|Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15213|
|Principal Investigator:||Prem Soman, MD||University of Pittsburgh Heart Vascular Institute|