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Prevention of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Using Rituximab (Rituxan) Therapy in Cardiac Transplantation

This study has been terminated.
(Due to inability to meet accrual goals within the funding period)
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation
Genentech, Inc.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01278745
First received: January 16, 2011
Last updated: February 28, 2017
Last verified: February 2017
  Purpose
All people who have a heart transplant are at risk for developing cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). CAV means narrowing of the heart transplant vessels, which is associated with poor heart transplant function. People who develop antibodies after transplant have a higher risk of developing CAV. Infections, high cholesterol, and rejection also increase the risk of developing CAV. People who develop CAV usually have to receive another transplant.

Condition Intervention Phase
Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy
Heart Transplant Recipients
Biological: Rituximab induction/conventional immunosuppression (tacrolimus, MMF, and steroid taper)
Drug: Rituximab placebo/conventional immunosuppression (tacrolimus, MMF, and steroid taper)
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Prevention of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Using Rituximab (Rituxan) Therapy in Cardiac Transplantation (CTOT-11)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Change in Percent Atheroma Volume (PAV) [ Time Frame: Baseline, 1 year ]
    Nominal or noticeable change, bad or good, from baseline to 1 year in percent atheroma volume (PAV) which is a measure of the degree of coronary arterial obstruction due to host alloimmune processes measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in a target coronary artery. Thus a decrease in PAV would be an indicator of less obstruction and a better outcome.


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Death [ Time Frame: 12 months ]
    Participants who died within 12 months post-transplant

  • Re-transplantation or Re-listed for Transplantation [ Time Frame: 6 to 12 months ]
    Re-transplantation is defined as the receipt of a subsequent heart transplant and re-listed for transplantation is being listed back on the heart transplant list to be re-transplanted.

  • Number of Episodes of Biopsy Proven Acute Rejection (BPAR) of Any Grade Per Participant [ Time Frame: 6 to 12 months ]
    The number of times a participant experienced biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR). Biopsy proven acute rejection is when an examination of tissue removed from the transplanted organ indicates that the subject's immune system is trying to reject the graft. BPAR was defined as a biopsy that met the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) criteria to be graded as 1R or greater rejection and was determined by a single, central pathology laboratory.

  • Incidence of BPAR (Any Grade) [ Time Frame: 6 to 12 months ]
    The number of subjects who experienced any grade of biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) within the clinical trial. Biopsy proven acute rejection is when an examination of tissue removed from the transplanted organ indicates that the subject's immune system is trying to reject the graft. BPAR was defined as a biopsy which met The International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) criteria to be graded as 1R or greater rejection and was determined by a single, central pathology laboratory.

  • Incidence of AMR [ Time Frame: 6 to 12 months ]
    The number of participants who experienced antibody- mediated rejection (AMR). Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurs when the subject develops antibodies directed against the transplanted heart. This was assessed based on local pathology biopsy reads.

  • Incidence of Cellular Rejection [ Time Frame: 6 to 12 months ]
    Cellular Rejection refers to the organ recipient's immune system recognizing a transplanted organ as foreign and mounting a response to it via cellular mechanisms. Cellular rejection was defined as a biopsy which met The International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) criteria to be graded as 1R or greater rejection and was determined by a single, central pathology laboratory

  • Incidence of Any Treated Rejection [ Time Frame: 6 to 12 months ]
    The number of participants who were treated by their local physician for any type of rejection including, but not limited to cellular rejection and antibody- mediated rejection (AMR) of the transplanted heart regardless of the presence of a biopsy.

  • Number of Participants With Episodes of Rejection Associated With Hemodynamic Compromise (HDC) [ Time Frame: 6 to 12 months ]
    The number of participants that experienced at least one episode of rejection associated with hemodynamic compromise (HDC). Rejection associated with HDC is when there is insufficient blood flow to the transplanted heart in association with acute rejection found in a biopsy. Local biopsies were used for this outcome measure.

  • Number of Participants With Development of Angiographically Evident Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is an aggressive form of atherosclerosis that is characterized by the development of fibrosis affecting cardiac arteries that result in concentric narrowing of the arteries and, ultimately allograft failure. Development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy can be diagnosed via an angiograph which is an X-ray of the cardiac arteries by injecting a radiopaque substance such as iodine.

  • Number of Participants With Post-transplant Serious Infections Requiring Intravenous Antimicrobial Therapy [ Time Frame: Transplantation through end of study, up to 1 year post transplantation. ]
    Number of participants experiencing at least one serious infection requiring intravenous antimicrobial therapy which is used to kill the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans.

  • Number of Participants With Post-transplant Incidence of PTLD [ Time Frame: Transplantation through end of study, up to 1 year post transplantation. ]
    The number of participants experiencing at least one post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurrence during this trial. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is an uncontrolled proliferation of B cell lymphocytes latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus.

  • Post-transplant Safety Outcomes Among Participants: Safety and Tolerability of Rituximab [ Time Frame: Transplantation through end of study, up to 1 year post transplantation ]
    Defined as participants that experienced at least one adverse event that was possibly, probably, or definitely related to the study drug (i.e., Rituximab or Placebo). Serious adverse events were used to evaluate this endpoint and the attribution was based on the DAIT Medical Monitor's assessment.


Enrollment: 362
Study Start Date: September 2011
Study Completion Date: October 2015
Primary Completion Date: October 2015 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Rituximab
Rituximab induction/conventional immunosuppression
Biological: Rituximab induction/conventional immunosuppression (tacrolimus, MMF, and steroid taper)
Placebo Comparator: Rituximab Placebo
Rituximab Placebo / conventional immunosuppression
Drug: Rituximab placebo/conventional immunosuppression (tacrolimus, MMF, and steroid taper)

Detailed Description:
The purpose of this research study is to see if a study drug called rituximab (Rituxan®) prevents CAV. Rituximab destroys certain types of white blood cells called B cells. B cells are important cells in the immune system that help the body fight infection by producing substances called antibodies. B cells and the antibodies they produce are also involved in some kinds of rejection after organ transplantation. Rituximab decreases the number of B cells in the blood and other tissues. The goal of this study is to determine if decreasing B cells with Rituximab can prevent injury to the transplanted heart.
  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria for Initial Enrollment:

  • Subject must be able to understand and provide informed consent;
  • Male or Female, 18 to 75 years of age;
  • Candidate for a primary heart transplant (e.g., listed for heart transplant only);
  • Historical panel reactive antibodies (PRA) less than 30%;
  • Calculated GFR ≥ 40 mL/minute using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI);
  • Female and male subjects with reproductive potential, must agree to use FDA approved methods of birth control for the duration of the study

Inclusion Criteria for Randomization / Post-transplant:

--Negative PRA within 12 weeks prior to transplant (Local HLA Center Testing) using one of the following:

  • One Lambda's LABScreen® Mixed Class I & II (presence or absence), or
  • Less than 10% by One Lambda's LABScreen® PRA Class I and II with an MFI of <2000, or
  • Calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA) less than 10% by LABScreen® Single Antigen testing (Anti-HLA-A, -B, -DR, -DQ). The antigens reported will include those with an MFI >2000.

The Luminex Gen-Probe beads are equivalent to the One Lambda and may be used as an alternative;

  • Calculated GFR ≥ 40mL/minute using the CKD-EPI at time of randomization;
  • Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level greater than 500mg/dL within 90 days prior to randomization;
  • Negative test for HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, and HCV Ab within 12 months prior to transplant. If documentation is not present to support that the testing was performed in the past 12 months, then a blood sample will be collected prior to transplant and sent for local testing. Results may be available after randomization. If positive result, the oversight committee will review the case and provide further recommendations.
  • Female subjects of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test.

Exclusion Criteria for Enrollment:

  • Prior history of organ transplantation;
  • Previous treatment with Rituximab (MabThera® / Rituxan ®);
  • Transplant physician intention to use any induction agents;
  • History of severe allergic anaphylactic reactions to humanized or murine monoclonal antibodies;
  • History of severe reaction to previous therapy with IVIG;
  • Active systemic infection at time of enrollment;
  • Any history of serologic positivity to HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, and HCV Ab;
  • History of less than 5 years remission of malignancy. Any history of adequately treated in-situ cervical carcinoma, or adequately treated basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin will be permitted;
  • Any condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with the subject's ability to comply with study requirements;
  • Use of other investigational drugs within 4 weeks of enrollment;
  • Currently breast-feeding or plans to become pregnant during the timeframe of the study follow-up period.

Exclusion Criteria for Randomization/Post-transplant:

  • Recipient of multiple solid organ or tissue transplants;
  • Previous treatment with Rituximab (MabThera® / Rituxan ®);
  • Use of any induction agents;
  • History of severe allergic anaphylactic reactions to humanized or murine monoclonal antibodies;
  • History of severe reaction to previous therapy with IVIG; Lack of IV venous access;
  • Active systemic infection at time of randomization;
  • Any history of serologic positivity to HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb and HCV Ab;
  • Any condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would interfere with the subject's ability to comply with study requirements;
  • Use of other investigational drugs within 4 weeks prior to randomization;
  • Receipt of a live vaccine within 30 days prior to randomization;
  • Currently breast-feeding or plans to become pregnant during the timeframe of the study follow-up period.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01278745

Locations
United States, California
Cedars Sinai Heart Institute
Beverly Hills, California, United States, 90211
Ronald Regan UCLA Medical Center
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90095
Stanford University/Palo Alto VA
Palo Alto, California, United States, 94304
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, California, United States, 94143-0124
Stanford University
Stanford, California, United States, 94305
United States, Illinois
Northwestern University
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611
United States, Maryland
University of Maryland
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201
United States, Massachusetts
Tufts Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02111
Massachusetts General Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
United States, Minnesota
Minneapolis Heart Institute
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55407
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55455
United States, New York
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
New York, New York, United States, 10029
Columbia University Medical Center
New York, New York, United States, 10032`
United States, Ohio
Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
United States, Pennsylvania
Drexel University College of Medicine
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19102
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Allegheny General Hospital
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15212
United States, South Carolina
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 29425
United States, Texas
Medical City Dallas Hospital/CRSTI
Dallas, Texas, United States, 75230
The Methodist Hospital
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
United States, Utah
Intermountain Medical Center
Murray, Utah, United States, 84157
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84132-2401
United States, Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 53792
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation
Genentech, Inc.
Investigators
Study Chair: Randall Starling, MD The Cleveland Clinic
Principal Investigator: Mohamed Sayegh, MD Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard
Study Chair: Anil Chandraker, MD Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard
  More Information

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01278745     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: DAIT CTOT-11
Study First Received: January 16, 2011
Results First Received: December 1, 2016
Last Updated: February 28, 2017

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV)
prevention
cardiac transplantation
rituximab

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Rituximab
Tacrolimus
Antineoplastic Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antirheumatic Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Calcineurin Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on April 21, 2017