Histology of Functional Density in Postmenopausal Breast
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Increased mammographic density is recognized as an important risk factor for developing breast cancer, however, the underlying mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The investigators hypothesize that Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) can more accurately distinguish dense tissue on mammography which is at high risk from dense tissue at low risk by indicating cellular activity in dense tissue as radiotracer uptake (functional density) in the breast. In this pilot study, the investigators want to compare the histological characteristics of breast tissue in patients with who have similar density on mammography but different levels of functional density on MBI.
proportion of epithelium vs stroma [ Time Frame: within 1 month of functional density assessment on MBI ]
Secondary Outcome Measures :
Degree of lobular involution [ Time Frame: within 1 month of functional density assessment on MBI ]
Degree of lobular involution as assessed through qualitative and quantitative measurements will be compared between dense tissue which appears photopenic on MBI and dense tissue which appears functionally active on MBI.
Ki-67 cellular proliferation index [ Time Frame: within 1 month of functional density assessment on MBI ]
Degree of cellular proliferation as assessed through Ki-67 index will be compared between dense tissue which appears photopenic on MBI and dense tissue which appears functionally active on MBI.
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Ages Eligible for Study:
40 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
Women with mammographically dense breasts who demonstrate either photopenic or marked background parenchymal uptake on MBI.
Age 40 or older
Be postmenopausal as defined as having at least 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea
Screening mammogram performed at Mayo Clinic Rochester within one year prior to the current MBI study which demonstrates
Negative or benign assessment (BIRADs category 1-2)
No proliferative benign lesions (e.g. fibroadenomas) identified
Heterogeneously dense or extremely dense parenchyma (BIRADs density category 3 or 4)
MBI performed less than one month prior to biopsy demonstrating either significant FD or photopenic FD.
Using any exogenous hormones (e.g., hormonal contraceptives, sex steroid hormones) or any estrogen receptor modulating drugs (e.g., tamoxifen, raloxifene) or any aromatase inhibitors within six months prior to study biopsy.
Personal history of any cancer, except non-melanomatous skin cancer
Current breast symptoms
Known allergy to local anesthetic.
History of bleeding complications from prior interventions
Current use of anticoagulants (e.g., Coumadin or other blood thinners)