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Avoiding the Hippocampus During Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Brain Metastases

This study has been completed.
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
NRG Oncology
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Identifier:
First received: October 22, 2010
Last updated: December 30, 2016
Last verified: December 2016

RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells.

PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well avoiding the hippocampus during whole-brain radiation therapy works in treating patients with brain metastases.

Condition Intervention Phase
Cognitive/Functional Effects
Metastatic Cancer
Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis
Other: questionnaire administration
Procedure: cognitive assessment
Procedure: quality-of-life assessment
Radiation: intensity-modulated radiation therapy
Radiation: whole-brain radiation therapy
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase II Trial of Hippocampal Avoidance During Whole Brain Radiotherapy for Brain Metastases

Further study details as provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Delayed recall at 4 months as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [ Time Frame: Within 2 weeks prior to treatment, 4 months after HA-WBRT ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Auditory and visual learning and memory as measured by the International Shopping List Test and One Card Learning Test (CogState) [ Time Frame: Within 2 weeks prior to treatment, 4 months after HA-WBRT ]
  • Quality of life as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) and the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) [ Time Frame: Within 2 weeks prior to treatment, 4 months after HA-WBRT ]
  • Time to radiographic progression [ Time Frame: Baseline to date of radiographic progression ]
  • Overall survival [ Time Frame: Baseline to date of death from any cause; patients last known to be alive are censored at date of last contact ]
  • Adverse events based on NCI CTCAE criteria [ Time Frame: Within 2 weeks prior to treatment, 2, 4 and 12 months after HA-WBRT ]
  • ApoE4 genotype and other potentially predictive biomarkers of cognitive function [ Time Frame: Within 2 weeks prior to treatment, 4 months ]

Enrollment: 113
Study Start Date: March 2011
Study Completion Date: December 2016
Primary Completion Date: May 2013 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Whole Brain Radiotherapy with Hippocampal avoidance using IMRT (30 Gy in 10 fractions)
Other: laboratory biomarker analysis Other: questionnaire administration Procedure: cognitive assessment Procedure: quality-of-life assessment Radiation: intensity-modulated radiation therapy Radiation: whole-brain radiation therapy

Detailed Description:



  • Evaluate delayed recall as assessed by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVTL-R) at 4 months after hippocampal avoidance during whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) in patients with brain metastasis.


  • Evaluate auditory and visual learning and memory, as assessed by 2 CogState tests (International Shopping List Test and One Card Learning Test), after HA-WBRT in these patients.
  • Compare psychometric properties of the 2 CogState tests to the HVLT-R for the assessment of memory decline after HA-WBRT in these patients.
  • Evaluate health-related quality of life [as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with Brain Subscale (FACT-BR) and the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)] after HA-WBRT in these patients.
  • Evaluate time to radiographic progression after HA-WBRT in these patients.
  • Evaluate overall survival of these patients after HA-WBR.
  • Evaluate the adverse events of HA-WBR.
  • Evaluate predictive biomarkers of cognitive function.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.

Patients undergo 10 fractions of intensity-modulated whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), avoiding hippocampal (HA) regions, once daily, 5 days a week, for 2-2½ weeks.

Patients neurocognitive functions (delayed recall, auditory and visual learning, and memory) are evaluated by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVTL-R), The One Card Learning Test (OCLT), and the International Shopping List Test (ISLT) at baseline and periodically during study.

Patients may undergo serum, plasma, or whole blood collection at baseline and at 4 months after completion of HA-WBRT for correlative studies.

Patients may complete the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with Brain Subscale (FACT-BR), and the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) quality-of-life questionnaires at baseline and periodically during study and follow up.

After completion of study therapy, patients are followed up periodically.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 120 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Histologically or cytologically confirmed non-hematopoietic malignancy within the past 5 years

    • If histologic proof of malignancy is from > 5 years ago, then a more recent pathological confirmation is required (e.g., from systemic metastatic or brain metastasis)
    • Patients with metastasis of unknown primary tumor are permitted
  • Measurable brain metastasis outside a 5-mm margin around either hippocampus on gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI obtained within the past 30 days
  • Have not been or will not be treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or surgical resection

    • These treatment options are allowed only at relapse
  • Patients who have brain metastases at initial presentation allowed and do not need to demonstrate 3 months of stable scans
  • At least 1 week since open biopsy
  • Karnofsky performance status 70-100%
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception
  • Negative pregnancy test 2 weeks or less prior to study entry
  • Patients must be English proficient, with patients who speak English as a second language eligible


  • Small cell lung cancer or germ cell malignancy
  • Leptomeningeal metastases
  • Non-small cell lung cancer-associated brain metastases with ≥ 2 organ sites of extracranial metastases
  • Radiologic evidence of hydrocephalus
  • Serum creatinine > 1.4 mg/dL within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Pregnant or nursing
  • Contraindication to MR imaging such as implanted metal devices or foreign bodies or severe claustrophobia
  • Severe, active co-morbidity including any of the following:

    • Unstable angina and/or congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization within the past 6 months
    • Transmural myocardial infarction within the past 6 months
    • Acute bacterial or fungal infection requiring intravenous antibiotics
    • Hepatic insufficiency resulting in clinical jaundice and/or coagulation defects
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation or other respiratory illness requiring hospitalization or precluding study therapy
    • Uncontrolled, clinically significant cardiac arrhythmias
  • Prior radiotherapy to the brain
  • Plan for chemotherapy or targeted therapies during WBRT or during the subsequent 7 days
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT01227954

  Hide Study Locations
United States, Alabama
UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center
Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 35294
United States, Arizona
Arizona Center for Cancer Care - Peoria
Peoria, Arizona, United States, 85381
Mayo Clinic Scottsdale
Scottsdale, Arizona, United States, 85259-5499
Arizona Oncology - Tucson
Tucson, Arizona, United States, 85704
Arizona Cancer Center at University of Arizona Health Sciences Center
Tucson, Arizona, United States, 85724-5024
United States, California
Veterans Affairs Medical Center - Long Beach
Long Beach, California, United States, 90822
Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90048
Radiological Associates of Sacramento Medical Group, Incorporated
Sacramento, California, United States, 95815
University of California Davis Cancer Center
Sacramento, California, United States, 95817
United States, Delaware
CCOP - Christiana Care Health Services
Newark, Delaware, United States, 19713
United States, Florida
Baptist Cancer Institute - Jacksonville
Jacksonville, Florida, United States, 32207
University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center - Miami
Miami, Florida, United States, 33136
Baptist-South Miami Regional Cancer Program
Miami, Florida, United States, 33176
Florida Cancer Center - Palatka
Palatka, Florida, United States, 32177
United States, Georgia
Piedmont Hospital
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30309
United States, Illinois
Rush University Medical Center
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60612
OSF St. Francis Medical Center
Peoria, Illinois, United States, 61637
United States, Indiana
Center for Cancer Care at Goshen General Hospital
Goshen, Indiana, United States, 46526
Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202-5289
Methodist Cancer Center at Methodist Hospital
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202
United States, Maryland
Greenebaum Cancer Center at University of Maryland Medical Center
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201
United States, Massachusetts
NSMC Cancer Center - Peabody
Danvers, Massachusetts, United States, 01923
United States, Michigan
Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48201-1379
United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic Cancer Center
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
United States, Missouri
Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital - Saint Louis
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110
United States, Montana
Billings Clinic - Downtown
Billings, Montana, United States, 59107-7000
United States, Nebraska
Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, Nebraska, United States, 68198
United States, New Jersey
St. Barnabas Medical Center Cancer Center
Livingston, New Jersey, United States, 07039
United States, New York
New York Oncology Hematology, PC at Albany Regional Cancer Care
Albany, New York, United States, 12206
United States, North Carolina
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599-7295
United States, Ohio
Summa Center for Cancer Care at Akron City Hospital
Akron, Ohio, United States, 44309-2090
Adena Regional Medical Center
Chillicothe, Ohio, United States, 45601
Case Comprehensive Cancer Center
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44106-5065
Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute at Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43210-1240
Southwest General Health Center
Middleburg Heights, Ohio, United States, 44130
United States, Oklahoma
Oklahoma University Cancer Institute
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States, 73104
United States, Oregon
Willamette Valley Cancer Center - Eugene
Eugene, Oregon, United States, 97401
Providence Cancer Center at Providence Portland Medical Center
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97213-2967
United States, Pennsylvania
Rosenfeld Cancer Center at Abington Memorial Hospital
Abington, Pennsylvania, United States, 19001
Bryn Mawr Hospital
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, United States, 19010
Regional Cancer Center - Erie
Erie, Pennsylvania, United States, 16505
Adams Cancer Center
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, United States, 17325
Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute at Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States, 17033-0850
Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University - Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19107-5541
Lankenau Cancer Center at Lankenau Hospital
Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, United States, 19096
York Cancer Center at Apple Hill Medical Center
York, Pennsylvania, United States, 17405
United States, South Dakota
Rapid City Regional Hospital
Rapid City, South Dakota, United States, 57701
United States, Texas
Texas Oncology, PA at Harris Center HEB
Bedford, Texas, United States, 76022
Klabzuba Cancer Center at Harris Methodist Fort Worth Hospital
Fort Worth, Texas, United States, 76104
Memorial Hermann Hospital - Memorial City
Houston, Texas, United States, 77024
M. D. Anderson Cancer Center at University of Texas
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030-4009
Texas Oncology, PA at Texas Oncology Cancer Center Sugar Land
Sugar Land, Texas, United States, 77479
United States, Utah
Jon and Karen Huntsman Cancer Center at Intermountain Medical Center
Murray, Utah, United States, 84157
Val and Ann Browning Cancer Center at McKay-Dee Hospital Center
Ogden, Utah, United States, 84403
Huntsman Cancer Institute at University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84112
United States, Virginia
University of Virginia Cancer Center
Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, 22908
Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center
Richmond, Virginia, United States, 23298-0037
United States, Washington
CCOP - Virginia Mason Research Center
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98101
Cancer Care Northwest - Spokane South
Spokane, Washington, United States, 99202
Canada, Ontario
London Regional Cancer Program at London Health Sciences Centre
London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4L6
Princess Margaret Hospital
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 2M9
Canada, Saskatchewan
Saskatoon Cancer Centre at the University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, S7N 4H4
Sponsors and Collaborators
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
NRG Oncology
Principal Investigator: Minesh P. Mehta, MD University of Maryland Medical Systems
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Identifier: NCT01227954     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT01366755
Other Study ID Numbers: RTOG-0933
Study First Received: October 22, 2010
Last Updated: December 30, 2016

Keywords provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:
cognitive/functional effects
tumors metastatic to brain
unspecified adult solid tumor, protocol specific

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplastic Processes
Pathologic Processes processed this record on May 25, 2017