Chronic Pain and Brain Activity in Spinal Cord Injury
|Spinal Cord Injury||Other: Hypnosis Other: Meditation Other: Neurofeedback training Other: Two different levels of tDCS|
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||Cortical Modulation of Chronic Pain|
- Current pain intensity after each study procedure will be the primary outcome measure. This pain intensity will be assessed using a 0 - 10 Numerical Rating Scale during the EEG (electroencephalogram) assessment after each intervention. [ Time Frame: Ratings of current and of average, worst, and least pain intensity "during the past five minutes" will be obtained every 5 min during each of the EEG (electroencephalogram) assessments ]
- Study procedures will result in changes in the EEG (electroencephalogram) assessment. [ Time Frame: Post procedure EEG (electroencephalogram) assessment is completed right after each study procedure ]Specifically these procedures will induce greater relative increases in alpha [7-12 Hz] bandwidth activity and greater relative decreases in beta (14-33 Hz) bandwidth activity, then either of the two control conditions.
- The observed changes in EEG (electroencephalogram) bandwidth activity associated with these procedures will mediate the decreases in pain intensity. [ Time Frame: Changes in the EEG (electroencephalogram) completed after each procedure will be related to the amount of pain relief experienced. ]
|Study Start Date:||December 2009|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Neurofeedback, tDCS (2 levels), Self-hypnosis, Meditation||
Hypnosis Training: Verbal suggestions from an audio recording (via headphones).Other: Meditation
Meditation: focus on a single word ("one") for the entire session.Other: Neurofeedback training
Neurofeedback Training: Two electrodes will be placed on your scalp, and one electrode clipped on your head. There is no risk of electrical shock.
Other Name: biofeedbackOther: Two different levels of tDCS
Direct stimulation of the brain by using a weak electrical current. There is no risk of electrical shock.
During the first study visit, subjects will receive a physical exam and an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures brain activity. Research staff will put a cap on your head that has sensors which measure your brain activity. There is no risk of electrical shock. In addition to the sensors in the cap, two clips will be put on your ears. EEG activity will be collected for 20 minutes: you will have your eyes open for ten minutes, and then have your eyes closed for ten minutes.
Additional study visits will follow where we will perform five different procedures (neurofeedback, self-hypnosis, two levels of transcranial direct current stimulation, and meditation). All subjects will receive all five procedures and each procedure will be conducted for 20 minutes.
Self-Hypnosis Training: You will be given verbal suggestions from an audio recording (via headphones) for relaxation and changes in the way you think about pain.
Meditation: You will be asked to focus on a single word ("one") for the entire session.
Neurofeedback Training: During this procedure, three sensors will be placed on your scalp, and one on each earlobe. A small amount of electrode paste will be used when placing the sensor on your scalp. There is no risk of electrical shock. You will be able to see images on a computer screen that correspond to your brain waves. You will learn how to change your brainwaves by changing the images on the computer.
Electric Stimulation (two different levels): This procedure consists of direct stimulation of the brain by a weak electrical current. The two procedure sessions will differ in the characteristics of the stimulation. Two electrodes will be placed on your scalp and secured by a rubber strap. The tDCS procedure is considered experimental and is not currently approved by the FDA but has been studied previously, at the same level of current, in spinal cord injury.
Before and after each procedure we will complete a 10 minutes EEG assessment similar to what is described above. The final procedure session will end with a 20 minute assessment to determine how responsive you are to hypnosis. Each procedure visits may last up to three hours. There will be a total of 6 study visits over approximately 2 months.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01012635
|United States, Washington|
|University of Washington|
|Seattle, Washington, United States, 98104|
|Principal Investigator:||Mark P. Jensen, PhD||University of Washington|