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Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00867048
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : March 23, 2009
Last Update Posted : September 25, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):

Study Description
Brief Summary:


  • To find out if the chance of developing a serious illness or of getting AIDS is less if patients start taking HIV medicines at a time when their cluster-of-differentiation-4 (CD4)+ cell count is still fairly high, instead of waiting until the CD4+ count is at the level where there is good evidence for starting medicines.
  • To learn more about how a strategy of starting HIV medicines early might affect other aspects of care, such as the chances of developing other illnesses or resistance to HIV medicines, the frequency of doctor visits, the cost of medical care, and general health and satisfaction.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infection Drug: All licensed antiretroviral medications Phase 4

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Study Design

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 4688 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment
Study Start Date : March 2009
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2021
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS
U.S. FDA Resources

Arms and Interventions

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Early ART
Initiate ART immediately following randomization
Drug: All licensed antiretroviral medications
In both arms, participants may be prescribed any licensed antiretroviral medication, in accordance with national treatment guidelines. The nature of the intervention is the timing of when to begin treatment with these medications, as described in the two treatment arms.
Active Comparator: Deferred ART
Defer ART until the CD4+ count declines to <350 cells/cu mm or AIDS develops
Drug: All licensed antiretroviral medications
In both arms, participants may be prescribed any licensed antiretroviral medication, in accordance with national treatment guidelines. The nature of the intervention is the timing of when to begin treatment with these medications, as described in the two treatment arms.

Outcome Measures

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Composite endpoint of AIDS, serious non-AIDS diagnoses, and all-cause mortality [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Components of the composite primary outcome measure [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  2. Specific non-AIDS diagnoses [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  3. Adverse events [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  4. Hospitalization, health-care utilization, quality of life [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  5. HIV drug resistance and transmission risk behavior [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  6. Change in neurocognitive function (in a subset of participants) [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  7. Obtain a whole blood sample from which DNA will be extracted to study validated genetic variants that determine the risk of the various primary and secondary outcomes assessed in START (in a subset of participants) [ Time Frame: Blood taken at study entry and stored in a central repository indefinitely ]
  8. Evaluate understanding of study information and satisfaction with the consent process among START participants, after receiving information from either a standard or a concise consent form (at a subset of sites) [ Time Frame: Before randomization into START ]
  9. Large and small artery elasticity (in a subset of participants) [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  10. Rate of lung function decline (in a subset of participants) [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]
  11. Changes in bone mineral density (in a subset of participants) [ Time Frame: 4.5 years ]

Eligibility Criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Signed informed consent
  • HIV infection documented by a plasma HIV RNA viral load, rapid HIV test or any licensed* ELISA test; and confirmed by another test using a different method including but not limited to a rapid HIV test, Western Blot, HIV culture, HIV antigen, or HIV pro-viral DNA at any time prior to study entry.
  • Age greater than or equal to 18 years
  • Karnofsky performance score greater than or equal to 80 (an indication that the participant can perform normal activities)
  • Perceived life expectancy of at least 6 months
  • For women of child-bearing potential, willingness to use contraceptives as described in the product information of the ART drugs they are prescribed
  • Two CD4+ cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm(3) at least 2 weeks apart within 60 days before randomization

    • The term licensed refers to an FDA-approved kit or, for sites located in countries other than the United States, a kit that has been certified or licensed by an oversight body within that country. Confirmation of the initial test result must use a test method that is different than the one used for the initial assessment.


  • Any previous use of ART or interleukin-2 (IL-2)
  • Diagnosis of any clinical AIDS event before randomization (including esophageal candidiasis and chronic Herpes simplex infection)
  • Presence of HIV progression such as oral thrush, unexplained weight loss, or unexplained fever
  • Cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, angioplasty, coronary-artery bypass grafting, stroke) within 6 months before randomization
  • Non-AIDS-defining cancer, excluding basal and squamous cell skin cancer, within 6 months before randomization
  • Dialysis within 6 months before randomization
  • Diagnosis of decompensated liver disease before randomization
  • Current imprisonment, or compulsory detention (involuntary incarceration) for treatment of a psychiatric or physical illness
  • Current pregnancy or breastfeeding (a negative serum or urine pregnancy test is required within 14 days before randomization for women of child-bearing potential)
Contacts and Locations

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00867048

  Hide Study Locations
United States, California
University of Southern California
Alhambra, California, United States, 91803
VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90073
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90095
UCSD Mother-Child-Adolescent Program
San Diego, California, United States, 92103
Naval Medical Center San Diego
San Diego, California, United States, 92134-1201
United States, Colorado
Denver Public Health
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80204
United States, Connecticut
Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06510
United States, District of Columbia
Georgetown University
Washington, D.C., District of Columbia, United States, 20007
George Washington Medical Faculty Associates
Washington, D.C., District of Columbia, United States, 20037
Washington DC VA Medical Center
Washington, D.C., District of Columbia, United States, 20422
United States, Florida
University of Florida Health Services Center
Jacksonville, Florida, United States, 32209
University of Florida, Jacksonville
Jacksonville, Florida, United States, 32209
University of Miami
Miami, Florida, United States, 33136
Orlando Immunology Center
Orlando, Florida, United States, 32803
Florida Department of Health in Orange County/Sunshine Care Center
Orlando, Florida, United States, 32805
Infectious Diseases Associates NW FL, PA
Pensacola, Florida, United States, 32503
Hillsborough County Health Deptment/University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida, United States, 33602
AIDS Research and Treatment Center of the Treasure Coast
Vero Beach, Florida, United States, 32960
United States, Illinois
Mt. Sinai Hospital
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60608
Lurie Children's Hospital
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611-2605
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60612
United States, Louisiana
Tulane University Medical Center
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Maryland
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20889-5600
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
United States, Massachusetts
Community Research Initiative of New England
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02111
Boston Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118
United States, Michigan
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48201
Henry Ford Health System
Detroit, Michigan, United States, 48202
Newland Immunology Center of Excellence (NICE)
Southfield, Michigan, United States, 48075
United States, Minnesota
Hennepin County Medical Center
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55415
Mayo Clinic
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
United States, New Jersey
Cooper University Hospital
Camden, New Jersey, United States, 08103
New Jersey Medical School Adult Clinical Research Center
Newark, New Jersey, United States, 07103
United States, New York
Cornell CRS
New York, New York, United States, 10010
Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center
The Bronx, New York, United States, 10457
Montefiore Medical Center
The Bronx, New York, United States, 10467
United States, North Carolina
UNC AIDS Clinical Trials Unit
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27514
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
Regional Center for Infectious Disease
Greensboro, North Carolina, United States, 27401-1209
Wake County Human Services
Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, 27610
Wake Forest University Health Sciences
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States, 27157-1042
United States, Ohio
The Ohio State University Medical Center
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43210
United States, Oregon
The Research + Education Group - Portland
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97210
The Research and Education Group at Portland VA Research Foundation
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97239
United States, Pennsylvania
Temple University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19140
United States, Tennessee
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
Memphis, Tennessee, United States, 38105-3678
United States, Texas
UT Southwestern Clinical Research Unit
Dallas, Texas, United States, 75235
University of North Texas Health Science Center
Fort Worth, Texas, United States, 76107
Houston AIDS Research Team
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Texas Children's Hospital
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
San Antonio Military Health System
San Antonio, Texas, United States, 78234
United States, Virginia
Naval Medical Center Portsmouth
Portsmouth, Virginia, United States, 23708
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia, United States, 23298
United States, Wisconsin
AIDS Resource Center of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 53203
Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 53226
Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas
El Palomar, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos Dr. Diego Paroissien
La Matanza, Buenos Aires, Argentina
CAICI (Instituto Centralizado de Assistencia e Investigacion Clinica Integral)
Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Fundacion IDEAA
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Hospital General de Agudos JM Ramos Mejia
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Hospital Rawson
Cordoba, Argentina
Neuquen, Argentina
Australia, New South Wales
Burwood Road General Practice
Burwood, New South Wales, Australia, 2134
East Sydney Doctors
Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia, 2010
Holdsworth House Medical Practice
Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia, 2010
St. Vincent's Hospital
Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia, 2010
Taylor Square Private Clinic
Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia, 2010
Westmead Hospital
Westmead, New South Wales, Australia, 2145
Australia, Queensland
Sexual Health and HIV Service - Clinic 2
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4000
Australia, South Australia
Royal Adelaide Hospital
Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 5000
Australia, Victoria
The Alfred Hospital
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3004
Melbourne Sexual Health Centre
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3053
Prahran Market Clinic
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 3181
Centre Clinic
St Kilda, Victoria, Australia, 3182
Australia, Western Australia
Royal Perth Hospital
Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 6000
Otto-Wagner-Spital SMZ /Baumgartner Hoehe
Vienna, Austria
University Vienna General Hospital
Vienna, Austria
Institute of Tropical Medicine
Antwerp, Belgium
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire St. Pierre (C.H.U. St. Pierre)
Brussels, Belgium
Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Gent
Ghent, Belgium
Universitair Ziekenhuis Gasthuisberg
Leuven, Belgium
SEI - Servi�os Especializados em Infectologia
Salvador, BA, Brazil, 40110-010
Center for Infectious Diseases at the UFES
Vitoria, ES, Brazil, 29040-091
Hospital Escola Sao Francisco de Assis - UFRJ
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 20210-030
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, 21040-900
Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas - IIER
Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, 01246-900
Centro de Referencia e Treinamento DST/Aids
Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, 04121-000
Lim 56/Hcfmusp
Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, 05403-000
Fundacion Arriaran
Santiago, Chile
University Hospital Plzen, CZ
Plzen, Czechia
Faculty Hospital Na Bulovce, Prague, Czech Rep.
Prague, Czechia
Arhus Universitetshospital, Skejby
Aarhus, Denmark
Rigshospitalet, Infektionsmedicinsk ambulatorium 8622
Copenhagen, Denmark
Hvidovre University Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases
Hvidovre, Denmark
Odense University Hospital
Odense, Denmark
West Tallinn Central Hospital Infectious Diseases
Tallinn, Estonia
Helsinki University Central Hospital, Div. of Infectious Diseases CRS
Helsinki, Finland
CHU de Besan�on - H�pital Jean-Minjoz
Besancon, France
CHU C�te de Nacre
Caen, France
H�pital Antoine Becl�re
Clamart, France
H�pital Henri Mondor
Creteil, France
H�pital de Bicetre
Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France
Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetri�re
Paris, France
H�pital Europeen Georges Pompidou
Paris, France
H�pital H�tel Dieu
Paris, France
H�pital Saint-Antoine
Paris, France
H�pital Saint-Louis
Paris, France
H�pital Foch
Suresnes, France
Centre Hospitalier - H�pital Gustave Dron
Tourcoing, France
EPIMED-Gesellschaft fur epidemiologische und klinische Forschung in der MedizinmbH
Berlin, Germany
Gemeinschaftspraxis Jessen-Jessen-Stein
Berlin, Germany
Medizinische Universitatsklinik - Bonn, Immunologische Ambulanz CRS
Bonn, Germany
Klinik I fur Innere Medizin der Universitat zu Koln, Studienburo fur Infektiologie u. HIV
Cologne, Germany
Klinikum Dortmund gGmbH
Dortmund, Germany
Universitatsklinikum Dusseldorf
Duesseldorf, Germany
Universitatsklinikum Erlangen
Erlangen, Germany
Klinik fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, Allergologie
Essen, Germany
Johann Wolfgang Goethe - University Hospital, Infektionsambulanz CRS
Frankfurt, Germany
ICH Study Center
Hamburg, Germany
Ifi - Studien und Projekte GmbH
Hamburg, Germany
Universitatsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf
Hamburg, Germany
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover
Hanover, Germany
Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg
Heidelberg, Germany
Klinikum der Universitat Munchen
Munich, Germany
Universitatsklinikum Regensburg
Regensburg, Germany
Universitatsklinikum Wurzburg, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, Schwerpunkt Infektiologie CRS
Wuerzburg, Germany
Attikon University General Hospital
Athens, Greece
Evangelismos General Hospital
Athens, Greece
Hippokration University General Hospital of Athens
Athens, Greece
Korgialenio-Benakio Hellenic Red Cross
Athens, Greece
Syngros Hospital
Athens, Greece
AHEPA University Hospital
Thessaloniki, Greece
Institute of Infectious Diseases
Pune, Maharashtra, India, 411037
YRGCARE Medical Centre VHS, Chennai CRS
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, 600113
Mater Misericordiae University Hospital
Dublin, Ireland
Rambam Medical Center
Haifa, Israel
Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center
Tel Aviv, Israel
Ospedale San Raffaele S.r.l.
Milan, MI, Italy
Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCSS
Rome, RM, Italy
Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg
Luxembourg, Luxembourg
University Malaya Medical Centre
Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia
Serefo/Cesac Mali
Bamako, Mali
INCMNSZ (Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran)
Tlalpan, Mexico
University Hospital Centre Ibn Rochd
Casablanca, Morocco, 20360
Institute of Human Virology-Nigeria (IHVN)
Abuja, FCT, Nigeria
Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval
Oslo, Norway
Via Libre
Lima, Peru, 01
Asociacion Civil IMPACTA Salud y Educacion
Lima, Peru, 04
Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins
Lima, Peru, 11
Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen
Lima, Peru, 13
Asociacion Civil Impacta Salud y Educacion - Sede San Miguel
Lima, Peru, 32
Uniwersytecki Szpital Kliniczny
Bialystok, Poland
Wojewodzki Szpital Zakazny
Warsaw, Poland
EMC Instytut Medyczny SA
Wroclaw, Poland
Hospital Curry Cabral
Lisbon, Portugal
Hospital de Egas Moniz
Lisbon, Portugal
Hospital de Santa Maria
Lisbon, Portugal
Hospital Joaquim Urbano
Oporto, Portugal
Puerto Rico
San Juan Hospital
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, 00935
University of Puerto Rico Pediatric Research Site
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00935-6528
Puerto Rico-AIDS Clinical Trials Unit (PR-ACTU)
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00935
South Africa
Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Clinical Trials Unit
Cape Town, South Africa
Durban International Clinical Research Site (WWH)
Durban, South Africa
Durban International Clinical Research Site
Durban, South Africa
Johannesburg, South Africa
1 Military Hospital
Pretoria, South Africa
Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias
Alcala de Henares, Spain
Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
Badalona, Spain
Hospital Clinic de Barcelona
Barcelona, Spain
Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau
Barcelona, Spain
Hospital del Mar
Barcelona, Spain
Hospital Clinico San Carlos
Madrid, Spain
Hospital La Paz
Madrid, Spain
Hospital La Princesa, Internal Medicine and Infectious Disease Service CRS
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre
Madrid, Spain
Hospital Universitari Mutua Terrassa
Terrassa, Spain
Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe
Valencia, Spain
Complejo Hospitalario Xeral Cies
Vigo, Spain
Sahlgrenska University Hospital
Gothenburg, Sweden
Skane University Hospital
Malmo, Sweden
University Hospital Basel
Basel, Switzerland
Bern University Hospital
Bern, Switzerland
Unite VIH/SIDA Geneva
Geneva, Switzerland
University Hospital Zurich
Zurich, Switzerland
Siriraj Hospital
Bangkok Noi, Thailand, 10700
Chulalongkorn University Hospital
Bangkok, Thailand, 10330
Ramathibodi Hospital
Bangkok, Thailand, 10400
Sanpatong Hospital
Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50120
Research Institute for Health Sciences (RIHES)
Chiang Mai, Thailand, 50200
Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital
Chiang Rai, Thailand, 57000
Chonburi Regional Hospital
Chonburi, Thailand, 20000
Khon Kaen University, Srinagarind Hospital
Khon Kaen, Thailand, 40002
Bamrasnaradura Institute
Nonthaburi, Thailand, 11000
MRC/UVRI Research Unit on AIDS
Entebbe, Uganda
Joint Clinical Research Center (JCRC)
Kampala, Uganda
United Kingdom
Royal Berkshire Hospital
Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom, RG1 5LE
The James Cook University Hospital
Middlesbrough, Cleveland, United Kingdom, TS4 3BW
Royal Bournemouth Hospital
Bournemouth, Dorset, United Kingdom, BH7 7DW
Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust
Brighton, East Sussex, United Kingdom, BN2 1ES
Leicester Royal Infirmary
Leicester, Leicestershire, United Kingdom, LE1 5WW
Belfast Health and Social Care Trust (RVH)
Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, BT12 6BA
Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, S10 2JF
Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom, B15 2WB
Birmingham Heartlands Hospital
Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom, B9 5SS
Coventry and Warwickshire NHS partnership Trust
Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom, CV1 4FS
Southmead Hospital
Bristol, United Kingdom, BS10 5NB
Gloucestershire Royal Hospital
Gloucester, United Kingdom, GL1 3NN
Barts Health NHS Trust
London, United Kingdom, E1 1BB
Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust
London, United Kingdom, NW3 2QG
Guy's and St.Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust
London, United Kingdom, SE1 7EH
Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust
London, United Kingdom, SE18 4QH
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital
London, United Kingdom, SW10 9NH
St. George's Healthcare NHS Trust
London, United Kingdom, SW17 0QT
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
London, United Kingdom, W2 1NY
University College London Medical School
London, United Kingdom, WC1E 6JB
North Manchester General Hospital
Manchester, United Kingdom, M8 5RB
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Copenhagen HIV Programme (CHIP) -- Copenhagen, Denmark
Medical Research Council
The Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society
The Institute for Clinical Research at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center -- Washington, D.C., USA
French National Institute for Health and Medical Research-French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (Inserm-ANRS)
German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
NEAT - European AIDS Treatment Network
National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Gilead Sciences
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Tibotec Pharmaceutical Limited
Principal Investigator: James D Neaton, PhD University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
Study Chair: Abdel Babiker, PhD Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London
Study Chair: Fred Gordin, MD Veterans Affairs Medical Center -- Washington, DC
Study Chair: Jens Lundgren, MD, DMSc Copenhagen HIV Programme
More Information

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):

Responsible Party: University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00867048     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00821171
Other Study ID Numbers: 0603M83587
U01AI068641 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
2008-006439-12 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: March 23, 2009    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: September 25, 2017
Last Verified: September 2017

Keywords provided by University of Minnesota - Clinical and Translational Science Institute:
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
CD4 Count
Early Intervention
HIV Infection
HIV Infections
treatment naive

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
Slow Virus Diseases