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Milrinone Inhaled in Cardiac Surgery

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: January 9, 2009
Last Update Posted: October 25, 2013
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Heart and stoke fondation of Quebec
Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Andre Denault, Montreal Heart Institute
Pulmonary hypertension is an important morbidity factor in patients having to undergo cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (ECC). Milrinone used in inhalation, shows evidence of being a pulmonary vasodilator able to possibly contribute to the reduction of pressure on the pulmonary artery.

Condition Intervention Phase
Valvular Stenosis Valvular Insufficiency Hypertension, Pulmonary Coronary Artery Disease Drug: Milrinone Drug: Normal saline Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: 2- Inhaled Milrinone Prevents the Increase in Pulmonary Artery Pressure After CPB

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Andre Denault, Montreal Heart Institute:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • To demonstrate that inhaled milrinone administered before CPB is superior to placebo in reducing the severity of difficult separation from bypass [ Time Frame: End of CPB ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Reduction in morbidity and mortality post-op [ Time Frame: At discharge, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year by telephone ]
  • Reduction in pulmonary artery pressure [ Time Frame: Same day before and after CPB ]
  • Right ventricular function measured using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and TEE [ Time Frame: Same day before and after the CPB ]
  • Serum levels of milrinone in relation with the pharmacodynamic marker [ Time Frame: Same day pre CPB per CPB and post CPB ]
  • reduction of the composite index of hemodynamic complications (defined as hospital death, vasoactive drugs > 24 hours and post-op cardiac arrest), [ Time Frame: 24 hrs post op and hospital discharge ]

Estimated Enrollment: 124
Study Start Date: February 2009
Study Completion Date: December 2012
Primary Completion Date: January 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Placebo Comparator: Normal saline
Normal saline by inhalation over 15 min
Drug: Normal saline
5 ml normal saline by inhalation over 15 min
Other Names:
  • Placebo
  • Comparator
Active Comparator: Milrinone
Inhaled milrinone 5 mg(as for the injectable solution)
Drug: Milrinone
inhaled milrinone 5 mg (as for the injectable solution)
Other Names:
  • Milrinone Cardiac Surgery
  • Milrinone inhaled
  • Inhaled milrinone reduces pulmonary artery pressure

Detailed Description:
This controlled, randomized, double-blind study will aim at confirming the efficiency as well as the security of Milrinone, used in inhalation, to diminish the degree of pulmonary hypertension before the cardiopulmonary bypass (ECC) circulation. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and echo graphic repercussions of administering the medication will be analysed. At the present time, there is no data on the pharmacokinetics of the medication when it's administered through inhalation. For this reason, we would like to study the serous rate of the medication in the minutes following its administration through inhalation.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 90 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Adult patients scheduled for elective valvular or complex (2 or more valves or
  • valve and revascularization) cardiac surgery under CPB with preoperative PHT defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) over 30 mmHg or
  • systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP) over 40 mmHg (using preoperative right-sided catheterization or estimated by echocardiography).

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Cardiac surgery not requiring CPB, contraindication to TEE (esophageal pathology or unstable cervical spine) and emergency surgery.
  • Patients will be recruited the day before surgery and randomized using computerized cards by the pharmacy department
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00819377

Canada, Quebec
Montreal Heart Institute
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H1T 1C8
Sponsors and Collaborators
Andre Denault
Heart and stoke fondation of Quebec
Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society
Principal Investigator: Denault André, MD FRCPC Montreal Heart Institute
  More Information

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Denault AY, Lamarche Y, Couture P, Haddad F, Lambert J, Tardif JC, Perrault LP. Inhaled milrinone: a new alternative in cardiac surgery? Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2006 Dec;10(4):346-60. Review.
Omae T, Kakihana Y, Mastunaga A, Tsuneyoshi I, Kawasaki K, Kanmura Y, Sakata R. Hemodynamic changes during off-pump coronary artery bypass anastomosis in patients with coexisting mitral regurgitation: improvement with milrinone. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jul;101(1):2-8, table of contents.
Kikura M, Levy JH, Michelsen LG, Shanewise JS, Bailey JM, Sadel SM, Szlam F. The effect of milrinone on hemodynamics and left ventricular function after emergence from cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg. 1997 Jul;85(1):16-22.
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Shibata T, Suehiro S, Sasaki Y, Hosono M, Nishi S, Kinoshita H. Slow induction of milrinone after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2001 Feb;7(1):23-7.
Kim JH, Ham BM, Kim YL, Bahk JH, Ryu HG, Jeon YS, Kim KB. Prophylactic milrinone during OPCAB of posterior vessels: implication in angina patients taking beta-blockers. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Nov;24(5):770-6.
Hoffman TM, Wernovsky G, Atz AM, Kulik TJ, Nelson DP, Chang AC, Bailey JM, Akbary A, Kocsis JF, Kaczmarek R, Spray TL, Wessel DL. Efficacy and safety of milrinone in preventing low cardiac output syndrome in infants and children after corrective surgery for congenital heart disease. Circulation. 2003 Feb 25;107(7):996-1002.
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Denault AY, Chaput M, Couture P, Hébert Y, Haddad F, Tardif JC. Dynamic right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006 Jul;132(1):43-9.
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Packer M, Carver JR, Rodeheffer RJ, Ivanhoe RJ, DiBianco R, Zeldis SM, Hendrix GH, Bommer WJ, Elkayam U, Kukin ML, et al. Effect of oral milrinone on mortality in severe chronic heart failure. The PROMISE Study Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1991 Nov 21;325(21):1468-75.
Cuffe MS, Califf RM, Adams KF Jr, Benza R, Bourge R, Colucci WS, Massie BM, O'Connor CM, Pina I, Quigg R, Silver MA, Gheorghiade M; Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Intravenous Milrinone for Exacerbations of Chronic Heart Failure (OPTIME-CHF) Investigators. Short-term intravenous milrinone for acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Mar 27;287(12):1541-7.
Lamarche Y, Malo O, Thorin E, Denault A, Carrier M, Roy J, Perrault LP. Inhaled but not intravenous milrinone prevents pulmonary endothelial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Jul;130(1):83-92.
Haraldsson s A, Kieler-Jensen N, Ricksten SE. The additive pulmonary vasodilatory effects of inhaled prostacyclin and inhaled milrinone in postcardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension. Anesth Analg. 2001 Dec;93(6):1439-45, table of contents.
Sablotzki A, Starzmann W, Scheubel R, Grond S, Czeslick EG. Selective pulmonary vasodilation with inhaled aerosolized milrinone in heart transplant candidates. Can J Anaesth. 2005 Dec;52(10):1076-82.
Bernstein AD, Parsonnet V. Bedside estimation of risk as an aid for decision-making in cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000 Mar;69(3):823-8.
Lamarche Y, Perrault LP, Maltais S, Tétreault K, Lambert J, Denault AY. Preliminary experience with inhaled milrinone in cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007 Jun;31(6):1081-7. Epub 2007 Apr 2.
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Oddie CJ, Jackman GP, Bobik A. Analysis of milrinone in plasma using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1986 Jan 10;374(1):209-14.
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Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Andre Denault, MD FRCPC ABIM-CCM, Montreal Heart Institute
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00819377     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 08-1004
First Submitted: January 8, 2009
First Posted: January 9, 2009
Last Update Posted: October 25, 2013
Last Verified: October 2013

Keywords provided by Andre Denault, Montreal Heart Institute:
Valvular surgery
pulmonary artery pressure

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Coronary Artery Disease
Myocardial Ischemia
Coronary Disease
Hypertension, Pulmonary
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Cardiotonic Agents
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Vasodilator Agents
Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs

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