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Laparoscopic-Assisted Resection or Open Resection in Treating Patients With Rectal Cancer

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00726622
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 1, 2008
Results First Posted : November 11, 2016
Last Update Posted : October 21, 2019
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology

Brief Summary:
This study is being done to compare two types of surgery currently used for rectal cancer. The two types of surgery are laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection and open laparotomy rectal resection. Although laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection is being used for rectal cancer in some medical centers, the effectiveness of this type of surgery compared to open surgery is unknown. The study will compare the safety and effectiveness of the surgeries, recovery from surgery in the hospital, overall recovery from surgery and cancer outcome.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Colorectal Cancer Procedure: Open laparotomy and rectal resection Procedure: Laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection Phase 3

Detailed Description:

This is a multicenter study. Patients eligible for this trial will have completed 5FU based neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy per the institution's standard of care or IRB approved clinical trial. Patients may be registered/randomized anytime after completion of neoadjuvant therapy, but surgery must occur within 4-12 weeks (28-84 days) after completion of neoadjuvant therapy. Patients are stratified according to the site of the primary tumor (high, middle or low rectum), registering surgeon, and planned operative procedure (low anterior resection or abdominal perineal resection). Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. Please see the arms section for more details. The primary and secondary objectives are listed below.

Primary Objective:

To test the hypothesis that laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer is not inferior to open rectal resection, based on a composite primary endpoint of oncologic factors which are indicative of a safe and feasible operation.

Secondary Objectives:

  1. To assess patient-related benefit of laparoscopic-assisted resection for rectal cancer vs.

    open rectal resection (blood loss, length of stay, pain medicine utilization)

  2. To assess disease free survival and local pelvic recurrence at two years.
  3. To assess quality of life, sexual function, bowel and stoma function at scheduled time points throughout the trial.

Patients will be evaluated after surgery to determine the need for subsequent care based on the final pathology. Patients should not start treatment on any other investigative trial involving intervention or invasive diagnostic procedures ≤ 30 days following surgery to enable a complete evaluation of post-operative adverse events and complications occurring within 30 days of surgery. Patients are followed periodically for up to 5 years post surgery.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 486 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Laparoscopic-Assisted Resection Versus Open Resection for Rectal Cancer
Actual Study Start Date : August 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : August 1, 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Arm 1: Open laparotomy and rectal resection
Patients undergo open laparotomy and rectal resection. The standard form of surgery is open laparotomy rectal resection. During open laparotomy, the surgeon makes a large incision or cut in the abdomen, and goes in through that cut to remove the tumor and lymph nodes from the rectum.
Procedure: Open laparotomy and rectal resection
Patients undergo open laparotomy and rectal resection.

Experimental: Arm 2: Laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection
Patients undergo laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection. Laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection is performed using small instruments on long handles introduced into the abdomen through small ports called trocars in 3 - 6 positions on the abdomen through incisions measuring 5 -10 mm, under the guidance of a video camera. The abdominal wall is held up with carbon dioxide under pressure. The piece of bowel or intestine is removed through another incision (about 8 centimeters), and the ends of the intestine are reconnected to provide normal bowel function.
Procedure: Laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection
Patients undergo laparoscopic-assisted rectal resection.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Comparing Laparoscopic-assisted Resection to Open Rectal Resection for Rectal Cancer as Measured by the Percentage of Patients With Successful Resection Based on Pathological Evaluation. [ Time Frame: At time of Surgery ]

    The primary endpoint will be a composite endpoint of oncologic factors which are indicative of an adequate surgical resection based on pathologic evaluation.

    Primary endpoint parameters:

    • Circumferential margin > 1 mm
    • Negative distal margin
    • Completeness of total mesorectal excision (TME) A complete TME is a rectal resection specimen that has an intact mesorectum and covering peritoneal envelope all the way to the level of rectal transection with no coning in of the mesorectum above the point of transection. The surface of the peritoneal covering should be smooth and shiny with no defects exposing the underlying fat.

    All three criteria must be met for a resection to be deemed adequate. Laparoscopic-assisted resection will be compared to Open rectal resection to determine if it is non-inferior.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Completeness of Total Mesorectal Excision (Complete or Nearly Complete) [ Time Frame: At time of surgery ]

    Complete total mesorectal excision was defined as a rectal resection specimen having smooth surface of mesorectal fascia with all fat contained in the enveloping fascia to a level 5 cm below the tumor for tumor-specific total mesorectal excision for upper rectal cancer, or the entire mesorectal envelope present for low rectal cancer. Nearly complete was defined as a rectal resection specimen having the mesorectal envelope intact except for defects no more than 5 mm deep, with no loss of mesorectal fat.

    The percentage of patients with complete or nearly complete mesorectal excision was calculated along with the binomial 95% CI.

  2. Negative Distal Resected Margin [ Time Frame: At time of surgery ]
    The percentage of patients with negative distal margin (>1 mm between the closest tumor to the cut edge of the tissue) was calculated along with binomial 95% confidence intervals.

  3. Circumferential Margin > 1 mm [ Time Frame: At time of surgery ]
    The distance between the closest tumor to the cut edge of the tissue was measure post-resection. The percentage of patients with >1mm between the closest tumor to the cut edge of the tissue was calculated with a binomial 95% confidence interval.

  4. Length of Stay [ Time Frame: Two weeks post-surgery ]
    The mean number of days required post-surgery to the when the patient was released from the hospital was calculated.

  5. Use of Pain Medication [ Time Frame: Two weeks post-surgery ]
    The number of days patients received parenteral narcotics post-surgery were counted.

  6. Operative Times [ Time Frame: During surgery ]
    Open to close operative time.

  7. Disease-free Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years post surgery ]
  8. Local Pelvic Recurrence Rates [ Time Frame: Up to 2 years post surgery ]
  9. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years post surgery ]
  10. Quality of Life and Sexual Function [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years post surgery ]
  11. Bowel Function [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years post surgery ]
  12. Bowel and Stoma Function [ Time Frame: Up to 5 years post surgery ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Eligibility Criteria:

  1. Histologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum (≤ 12 cm from the anal verge)
  2. T3, N0, M0, T1-3, N1-2, M0 disease as determined by pre-neoadjuvant therapy CT scans and pelvic MRI or transrectal ultrasound. Patients with T4 disease are not eligible.
  3. Completion of pre-operative 5FU based chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Capecitabine may be substituted for 5FU.
  4. Age ≥ 18 years
  5. ECOG (Zubrod) Performance Status ≤ 2
  6. Body Mass Index (BMI) ≤ 34
  7. No evidence of conditions that would preclude use of a laparoscopic approach (eg, multiple previous major laparotomies, severe adhesions)
  8. No systemic disease (cardiovascular, renal, hepatic) that would preclude surgery. No other severe incapacitating disease:

    • ASA IV: A patient with severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life. OR
    • ASA V: A moribund patient who is not expected to survive without the operation.
  9. No concurrent or previous invasive pelvic malignancy (cervical, uterine and rectal) within five years prior to registration
  10. No history of psychiatric or addictive disorders or other conditions that, in the opinion of the investigator, would preclude the patient from meeting the study requirements.

NOTE: Incompetent patients are not eligible for this trial.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00726622

  Hide Study Locations
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United States, Arizona
Mayo Clinic Scottsdale
Scottsdale, Arizona, United States, 85259-5499
United States, California
Cancer Care Center at John Muir Health - Concord Campus
Concord, California, United States, 94524-4110
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center - Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90027
California Pacific Medical Center - California Campus
San Francisco, California, United States, 94118
John Muir/Mt. Diablo Comprehensive Cancer Center
Walnut Creek, California, United States, 94598
United States, Florida
Cleveland Clinic Florida - Weston
Weston, Florida, United States, 33331
United States, Georgia
John B. Amos Cancer Center
Columbus, Georgia, United States, 31904
United States, Illinois
Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center at Northwestern University
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60611-3013
Evanston Hospital
Evanston, Illinois, United States, 60201-1781
United States, Indiana
Clarian North Medical Center
Carmel, Indiana, United States, 46032
Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202-5289
Veterans Affairs Medical Center - Indianapolis
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202
William N. Wishard Memorial Hospital
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202
Kendrick Regional Center for Colon and Rectal Care - Mooresville
Mooresville, Indiana, United States, 46158
United States, Iowa
Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa, United States, 52242-1002
United States, Massachusetts
Lahey Clinic Medical Center - Burlington
Burlington, Massachusetts, United States, 01805
United States, Michigan
Blodgett Hospital at Spectrum Health
Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States, 49506
United States, Minnesota
Mayo Clinic Cancer Center
Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905
United States, Missouri
Boone Hospital Center
Columbia, Missouri, United States, 65201
Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital - Saint Louis
Saint Louis, Missouri, United States, 63110
United States, New Jersey
Overlook Hospital
Summit, New Jersey, United States, 07901
United States, New York
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
New York, New York, United States, 10065
Stony Brook University Cancer Center
Stony Brook, New York, United States, 11794-9446
SUNY Upstate Medical University Hospital
Syracuse, New York, United States, 13210
United States, North Carolina
Duke Cancer Institute
Durham, North Carolina, United States, 27710
United States, Ohio
Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44195
United States, Oklahoma
INTEGRIS Cancer Institute of Oklahoma - Proton Campus
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States, 73142
United States, Oregon
Providence Cancer Center at Providence Portland Medical Center
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97213-2967
United States, Pennsylvania
Forbes Regional Hospital
Monroeville, Pennsylvania, United States, 15146
Allegheny Cancer Center at Allegheny General Hospital
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15212
Western Pennsylvania Cancer Institute at Western Pennsylvania Hospital
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15224-1791
Lankenau Cancer Center at Lankenau Hospital
Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, United States, 19096
United States, Texas
M. D. Anderson Cancer Center at University of Texas
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030-4009
United States, Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center
Madison, Wisconsin, United States, 53792-6164
Medical College of Wisconsin Cancer Center
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, 53226
Canada, British Columbia
St. Paul's Hospital at Providence Health Care - Vancouver
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6Z 1Y6
Canada, Ontario
St. Joseph's Hospital - Charlton Campus
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8N 4A6
Sponsors and Collaborators
Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Study Chair: James W. Fleshman, MD Baylor Health

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology Identifier: NCT00726622     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ACOSOG-Z6051
U10CA076001 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
NCI-2009-00350 ( Other Identifier: NCI Clinical Trial Reporting Office )
CDR0000601816 ( Registry Identifier: NCI Physician Data Query )
First Posted: August 1, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 11, 2016
Last Update Posted: October 21, 2019
Last Verified: October 2019
Keywords provided by Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology:
rectal cancer
adenocarcinoma of the rectum
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Rectal Neoplasms
Colorectal Neoplasms
Intestinal Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Digestive System Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Rectal Diseases