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PneuMum: Pneumococcal Vaccination of Australian Indigenous Mothers (PneuMum)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00714064
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 14, 2008
Last Update Posted : July 10, 2014
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ross Andrews, Menzies School of Health Research

Brief Summary:

PneuMum is a randomised controlled trial that aims to find out if pneumococcal vaccination for Australian Indigenous mothers, in the last few months of pregnancy or at delivery, can prevent ear disease in infants. Mothers will receive the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) either: a) during the third trimester of pregnancy; b) soon after child birth; or c) seven months after child birth (control group). The adult diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine (dTpa) will be used as the control vaccine for the birth dose.

The study aims to recruit 210 Indigenous women aged 17-39 years who have an uncomplicated pregnancy. Following recruitment, subjects will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups.

Each mother and infant will be followed from pregnancy until the baby is seven months of age. All routinely recommended vaccinations on the standard vaccination schedule will continue to be offered by the subject's vaccine provider in accordance with current clinical practice.

The primary outcome will be prevalence of middle ear disease at seven months of age, defined as middle ear effusion or tympanic membrane perforation or acute otitis media. Pneumatic otoscopy, video-otoscopy and tympanometry will be used in the ear examinations. The primary analyses will be a direct comparison of the proportion of infants in the control group who have nasopharyngeal carriage of one or more vaccine type pneumococci at seven months of age compared to infants in each of the other two groups. A similar comparison of the proportion with middle ear disease will be undertaken between the control group and the respective intervention group.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Middle Ear Effusion Tympanic Membrane Perforation Acute Otitis Media Pneumococcal Infections Biological: 23vPPV, dTpa (Pneumovax, Boostrix) Phase 3

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Detailed Description:

PneuMum is a randomised controlled trial that aims to find out if pneumococcal vaccination for Australian Indigenous mothers, in the last few months of pregnancy or at delivery, can prevent ear disease in infants. Two vaccines will be used in this trial:

  • The 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV), is currently recommended for all Indigenous people in the Northern Territory from 15 years of age but uptake among women of child-bearing age has been low.
  • Adult diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine (dTPa) will be used as the control vaccine. This vaccine is recommended for all new parents who have not previously been immunised but is not currently funded so would normally need to be purchased on prescription through a pharmacist.

Rationale

Indigenous children experience the highest rates of acute and chronic ear infections in the world, resulting in permanent ear damage, hearing loss and educational disadvantage. These infections are mainly bacterial. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the predominant pathogen. Pneumococcal colonisation and infection begins within days of birth, months before any potential immunological protection from infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may be expected. New strategies are needed to eliminate, or at least delay, this early-onset pneumococcal colonisation.

Maternal vaccination with the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) during pregnancy or at delivery is one strategy that may protect newborn infants through mechanisms such as transplacental antibody transfer, increased secretory antibody in breast milk, and/or by reducing nasopharyngeal carriage (and transmission to the infant) of maternal pneumococci. Previous small studies using this strategy have been encouraging, but there have been no studies properly evaluating nasopharyngeal carriage or disease endpoints in infants.

Methods

We aim to recruit 210 Indigenous women aged 17-39 years who have an uncomplicated pregnancy. Following recruitment, subjects will be randomly assigned to one of three groups:

  • Group A will receive 23vPPV in the last few months of pregnancy
  • Group B will receive 23vPPV soon after childbirth
  • Group C will receive 23vPPV seven months after childbirth (the control group).

Women in Groups A and C will receive dTpa soon after childbirth (to conceal the intervention groups), whereas women in Group C will be offered dTpa seven months after childbirth (end of the observation period).

Study participants will be visited at least five times:

  1. During the last few months of pregnancy (30-36 weeks gestation)

    - The group of mothers receiving 23vPPV at this visit will also have a pre-vaccination blood sample collected

  2. At Royal Darwin Hospital when the baby is born

    • Each mother will receive either 23vPPV or dTpa depending on their allocation
    • Each mother will have a pre-vaccination blood sample, cord blood sample, a nasopharyngeal swab and a sample of expressed breast milk taken
  3. When the baby is one month old

    - Each baby will have their ears checked utilising pneumatic otoscopy, video-otoscopy and tympanometry. A nasopharyngeal swab will be taken. A swab will also be taken of any discharge from the baby's ear/s. Mothers will be asked for sample of expressed breast milk and a post vaccine maternal blood sample will be collected.

  4. When the baby is two months old

    - The same checks and samples as the previous month with the exception of maternal blood sample unless this has not previously been collected.

  5. When the baby is seven months old - Each mother and baby will have the same checks and samples as per the two month visit. Babies will also have a sample taken of their blood. Mothers who have not yet had 23vPPV will be offered that vaccine as will those who have not yet had dTpa.

Primary Outcome

The primary outcomes will be:1)prevalence of middle ear disease at seven months of age; and 2)prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type (23vPPV) pneumococci. The primary analyses will be a direct comparison of the proportion of infants in the control group (Group C) who have nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type pneumococci at seven months of age compared to infants in each of the other two groups and a similar comparison of the proportion with middle ear disease.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 227 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: PneuMum: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mothers to Protect Their Babies From Ear Disease
Study Start Date : June 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 2011
Actual Study Completion Date : July 2011

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: 23vPPV in Pregnancy Biological: 23vPPV, dTpa (Pneumovax, Boostrix)
Group A will receive 23vPPV during 3rd trimester and dTpa at delivery
Other Name: Pneumovax, Boostrix

Active Comparator: 23vPPV at Birth Biological: 23vPPV, dTpa (Pneumovax, Boostrix)
Group B will receive 23vPPV at delivery and dTpa 7 months following delivery
Other Name: Pneumovax, Boostrix

Control
Control
Biological: 23vPPV, dTpa (Pneumovax, Boostrix)
Group C will receive dTpa at delivery and 23vPPV 7 months following delivery
Other Name: Pneumovax, Boostrix




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Prevalence of middle ear disease, defined as middle ear effusion or tympanic membrane perforation or acute otitis media [ Time Frame: at seven months of age ]
  2. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type pneumococci [ Time Frame: at seven months of age ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Prevalence of middle ear disease [ Time Frame: at one month of age ]
  2. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type pneumococci [ Time Frame: at one month of age ]
  3. Prevalence of middle ear disease [ Time Frame: at two months of age ]
  4. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine type pneumococci [ Time Frame: at two months of age ]
  5. Relationship of maternal pneumococcal carriage, maternal anti-pneumococcal antibody levels, cord blood antibody levels and breast milk antibody levels to infant carriage and middle ear disease [ Time Frame: at one, two and seven months of age ]
  6. Impact of each maternal vaccination strategy on breast milk antibody levels to serotypes contained in the vaccine [ Time Frame: at seven months ]
  7. Impact of each maternal vaccination strategy on breast milk antibody avidity (to four selected serotypes) [ Time Frame: at seven months ]
  8. Impact of each maternal vaccination strategy on maternal antibody response to antepartum or postpartum 23vPPV [ Time Frame: at seven months ]
  9. Impact of each maternal vaccination strategy on infant anti-pneumococcal antibody levels (following the 3rd recommended dose of 7vPCV) [ Time Frame: at seven months of age ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   17 Years to 39 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Singleton uncomplicated pregnancy
  • Reside in Darwin, the Tiwi Islands, or other remote community where consent has been obtained
  • Intends to deliver child at the Royal Darwin Hospital or other designated hospital where consent has been obtained
  • Has given informed consent to participate

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Had 23vPPV within the previous three years
  • Had a previous dose of dTpa
  • Intends to leave the study area during the follow-up period
  • HIV positive
  • History of severe allergy, uncontrolled asthma or splenectomy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00714064


Locations
Australia, Northern Territory
Menzies School of Health Research
Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, 0811
Sponsors and Collaborators
Menzies School of Health Research
National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Ross M Andrews, PhD Menzies School of Health Research
Principal Investigator: Jonathan R Carapetis, PhD Menzies School of Health Research
Principal Investigator: Amanda J Leach, PhD Menzies School of Health Research
Principal Investigator: Peter S Morris, PhD Menzies School of Health Research
Principal Investigator: Edward K Mulholland, DM The Univeristy of Melbourne and Murdoch Childrens Research Institute
Principal Investigator: Paul J Torzillo, MBBS Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney
Principal Investigator: Mimi LK Tang, PhD Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne

Additional Information:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Ross Andrews, Professor, Menzies School of Health Research
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00714064     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NHMRC 490320
NHMRC 350499
First Posted: July 14, 2008    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 10, 2014
Last Verified: July 2014

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Otitis Media
Pneumococcal Infections
Otitis Media with Effusion
Tympanic Membrane Perforation
Otitis
Ear Diseases
Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases
Streptococcal Infections
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections
Wounds and Injuries
Pentetic Acid
Edetic Acid
Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Antidotes
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Chelating Agents
Sequestering Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Iron Chelating Agents
Anticoagulants
Calcium Chelating Agents
Immunologic Factors