Qualitative Assessment of Implementing Routine Rapid HIV Testing

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00680862
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 20, 2008
Results First Posted : September 29, 2014
Last Update Posted : September 29, 2014
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
VA Office of Research and Development ( US Department of Veterans Affairs )

Brief Summary:
Qualitative assessment of implementing routine HIV rapid testing in primary care clinics within VA

Condition or disease
HIV Infections

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Detailed Description:


During the past three decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have caused extensive illness and death in the United States. Since the advent of the HIV epidemic, the VA healthcare system has been significantly impacted. Veterans are at much higher HIV risk than the general population. In addition, a significant proportion of VA patients are members of minority groups, and are homeless, both patient categories which have also been linked to high HIV prevalence. Because the VA is the largest provider of HIV treatment in the US, it is imperative that researchers develop innovative methods to 1) identify HIV-positive individuals, 2) provide them with the knowledge of their HIV-positive status; 3) do so early enough in the disease so that patients can be placed into care, so that antiretroviral therapies can be effective, and the HIV epidemic can be slowed and reversed.

Current HIV testing methods have been highly ineffective in this regard, due in large measure to the method itself. Conventional HIV testing requires both a blood draw and laboratory analysis, requiring a patient to schedule a future visit to receive results. Consequently, a significant number of people simply do not return for their test results. Current HIV prevalence figures bear this out. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that of the 1.2 million HIV infected persons in the US, as many as 1/3 are unaware of their infection. Indeed, the CDC now recommends routine HIV testing for all Americans. This recommendation was predicated on the evidence that moving from a risk-based, to a routine testing model is one of the most effective ways to significantly increase testing rates. As better HIV identification systems begin to spread through the VHA, the VHA must determine the proper place for broader routine HIV rapid testing programs in their delivery systems. Demonstrating effectiveness is only the first step. To make policy recommendations, we must better understand the challenges of implementing a testing system that would apply to all, not just at-risk patients.

The move toward routine HIV testing, combined with a novel diagnostic tool (rapid testing) although highly effective, provides many implementation challenges. For example, what are the unintended adverse consequences in implementing NRT? What are the barriers and facilitators to implementation? How important are local nursing and physician champions and opinion leaders? These issues are of paramount importance in reaching an evidence-based consensus as to what a 'best practices' approach could look like within a large, decentralized healthcare organization like VA.


The specific aims of this project then, are:

  1. To develop generalized qualitative methods and instruments which can be used to evaluate VA HIV rapid testing implementation efforts;
  2. To employ these developed instruments to qualitatively document the implementation of our previously successful NRT strategy for spreading NRT to VA primary/urgent care practice at our downtown Los Angeles Outpatient Clinic (OPC);
  3. To explore and document barriers, facilitators, and unintended consequences of implementing our NRT model of HIV testing at LAOPC.


We used qualitative methods to conduct formative and process evaluations which allowed us to fully assess our research objective, which were:

A thorough examination, exploration and description of the barriers and facilitators to implementing NRT at the Los Angeles Outpatient Clinic (OPC).


project objectives completed; manuscript being developed

Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 25 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Qualitative Assessment of Implementing Routine Rapid HIV Testing
Study Start Date : June 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2008
Actual Study Completion Date : September 2008

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Group 1
VA employees

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants Who Completed the Survey [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    survey responses from participants on thoughts pertaining to implementation of HIV rapid testing

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
key informant VA employees

Inclusion Criteria:

- VA employees of LA OPC who are involved in HIV care and/or policy

Exclusion Criteria:

- n/a

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00680862

United States, California
VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, West Los Angeles, CA
West Los Angeles, California, United States, 90073
Sponsors and Collaborators
US Department of Veterans Affairs
Principal Investigator: Henry Anaya, PhD MA VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, West Los Angeles, CA

Publications of Results:
Responsible Party: US Department of Veterans Affairs Identifier: NCT00680862     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: SHP 08-158
First Posted: May 20, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: September 29, 2014
Last Update Posted: September 29, 2014
Last Verified: September 2014

Keywords provided by VA Office of Research and Development ( US Department of Veterans Affairs ):

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases