HIV Prevention With the Mentally Ill

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00643305
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 26, 2008
Last Update Posted : May 3, 2013
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Boston Medical Center

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to determine whether motivational interviewing and skills building interventions reduce HIV risk behavior for adults with serious and persistent mental illness.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
HIV Infections Behavioral: Skills Building with Motivational Interviewing Behavioral: Skills Building Phase 2

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Detailed Description:

Our long-term objective is to reduce the incidence of HIV for people with serious and persistent mental illness (SMI) by developing an effective primary and secondary HIV risk reduction intervention for this population which can be easily delivered in the "real world" settings in which patients routinely receive care. Research findings document that the incidence of HIV infection, sexually transmitted diseases, and sexual and drug use behaviors are high among people with serious mental illness, as evidenced by rates of HIV infection and other sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs). A variety of factors underlie risky behaviors for the SMI, including cognitive impairment, poor judgment, affective instability and impulsiveness.

Skills-building (SB) HIV risk reduction interventions, typically delivered in a small group formats, have had modest success in increasing HIV-related knowledge and improving risk reduction skills for people with SMI, although these effects are transient. As skills-building interventions are currently the standard of care in most research and clinical settings for HIV prevention, it is important to identify new ways to augment these interventions.

A relatively new and promising addition to the armamentarium of individualized interventions is Motivational Interviewing (MI). MI is an approach designed to reduce ambivalence and enhance intrinsic motivation to change problematic behaviors. Previous researchers have noted effects for both SB and MI interventions independently, however, these effects tend to be fairly modest. Integrating these approaches in a systematized way allows us to test the degree to which this combination is useful, given that both motivation and skills are clearly important in effecting health behavior change.

Our specific primary aims are the following:

  1. To adapt SB and MI interventions for HIV risk reduction for men and women with serious and persistent mental illness (SMI).

    Interventions for HIV risk reduction for people with SMI are typically offered in a group format and focus primarily on skills-building. We have developed and refined a brief, individually-tailored skills-building intervention (SB Intervention), based on these existing manuals. We have also adapted and refined a brief individually-tailored Motivational Interviewing intervention to target HIV risk behaviors, incorporating skills-building techniques analogous to those in the SB intervention, resulting in a Motivational-Interviewing & Skills-Building Intervention (SB-MI Intervention). Adaptation and refinement of the SB and SB-MI interventions was informed by consulting with experts in MI, SMI, and HIV risk reduction, eliciting feedback from advisory boards of providers and consumers, and conducting feedback interviews with participants who have completed participation in the study.

  2. To pilot test and obtain preliminary data with regard to the feasibility of our interventions and the differences in outcome associated with our SB and SB-MI interventions for reduction of HIV-related risk behaviors in a cohort of SMI adults.

    Comparison of SB and SB-MI interventions in the proposed pilot study will allow us to assess the degree to which incorporation of motivational techniques are helpful in augmenting skills-building interventions for HIV risk reduction for people with SMI. These preliminary analyses will inform our need to refine the adapted interventions (SB and SB-MI).

  3. To offer HIV counseling and testing for at-risk individuals with SMI, with an emphasis on connecting participants to appropriate medical and mental health services.

    To date, increasing rates of HIV counseling and testing for the SMI has not been a primary focus of clinical research, which we believe to be a significant public health deficit. As part of both of our interventions we are providing information about HIV counseling and testing services to those participants not identified as HIV-seropositive and encouraging them to access these services. We are then tracking the degree to which participants follow up on these referrals as part of our follow-up evaluations. This will allow us to test the degree to which our interventions are helpful in increasing rates of HIV testing.

  4. To begin to explore the relationships between participant characteristics, HIV risk behaviors, and response to our interventions.

One of the unique features of our intervention is that it assumes an individually-tailored approach, which can address unique patient characteristics inherent in a heterogeneous sample. Indeed, using a heterogeneous sample greatly facilitates our primary long-term objective, which is to develop useable interventions that can be adapted in real-world settings. This project will allow us to begin to identify those characteristics that are likely to be associated with more positive outcomes (i.e. greater risk reduction, increased rates of HIV testing).

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 53 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: HIV Prevention With the Mentally Ill: Motivation-Skills
Study Start Date : February 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2008
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2009

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: 1
Skills Building with Motivational Interviewing (SB-MI)- combines education and general skills-building participants can use to reduce their at-risk behavior for HIV with increasing motivation to change HIV risk behaviors
Behavioral: Skills Building with Motivational Interviewing
Based on the Stages of Change model, participants are provided with feedback related to their current HIV risk and Motivational Interviewing strategies are used to increase motivation to decrease HIV risk behaviors. Participants are also provided with information and training in skills critical for reducing HIV risk

Active Comparator: 2
Skills Building (SB) - provides education and general skills-building for reduction of HIV risk behaviors.
Behavioral: Skills Building
Participants are provided with information and training in skills critical for reducing HIV risk.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Self-reported reduction in HIV risk behavior for infection/re-infection of HIV, as measured by administration of the TimeLine Follow-Back. [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  2. Skillfulness in behaviors critical for efficacious use of HIV risk reduction strategies, measured by standardized role-plays and demonstrations [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  3. HIV-related knowledge, as measured by the HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ) [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
  4. Accessing HIV counseling and testing, assessed by self-report [ Time Frame: 6 months ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   19 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 19 and older
  • Able to provide consent
  • Able to understand and speak English
  • Willing and able to participate
  • Suffer from a serious and persistent mental illness (SMI)
  • Have had at least one HIV risk behavior (unprotected sexual activity, sharing injection drug needles without following Center for Disease Control guidelines for needle-cleaning, sexual activity while under the influence of drugs or alcohol) during the three-month period prior to the baseline evaluation

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Do not suffer from a serious mental illness
  • Have not engaged in an HIV risk behavior during the three-month period prior to the baseline evaluation.
  • Unable to provide consent
  • Unable to understand and speak English
  • Under the age of 19

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00643305

United States, Massachusetts
Boston Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02118
Sponsors and Collaborators
Boston Medical Center
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Principal Investigator: Stephen Brady, Ph.D. The Trustees of Boston University, BUMS

Responsible Party: Boston Medical Center Identifier: NCT00643305     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Project HELP
5R34MH075644-02 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: March 26, 2008    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 3, 2013
Last Verified: March 2008

Keywords provided by Boston Medical Center:
Motivational Interviewing
Mental illness
Risk reduction
HIV Seronegativity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases