Combination Chemotherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients Undergoing Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Specialized radiation therapy that delivers a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor may kill more tumor cells and cause less damage to normal tissue. Giving these treatments before surgery may make the tumor smaller and reduce the amount of normal tissue that needs to be removed. Giving chemotherapy after surgery may kill any tumor cells that remain after surgery.
PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying the side effects and how well giving combination chemotherapy together with intensity-modulated radiation therapy works in treating patients undergoing surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Radiation: radiation therapy
|Study Design:||Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||A Phase II Evaluation of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Utilizing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in Combination With Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin for Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer|
- The Percentage of Patients Experiencing Treatment-related Gastrointestinal Adverse Events ≥ Grade 2 Per National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Critereia for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 3.0, Occurring Preoperatively [ Time Frame: From start of treatment to surgery or ≤ 90 days from the Start of Concurrent Treatment (for patients not undergoing surgery) ]The percentage of patients experiencing preoperative treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse events ≥ grade 2. If patient did not receive surgery, then such adverse events <= 90 days from the start of concurrent treatment are included.
- Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) Feasibility [ Time Frame: IMRT planning and dosing data is centrally reviewed for quality assurance ]
- Pathologic Complete Response Rate [ Time Frame: After protocol surgery ]
- All Treatment-related Adverse Events Per NCI CTCAE v3.0 Preoperative, Postoperative, and Overall [ Time Frame: Three timeframes: Start of treatment to surgery, Surgery to 3 months after the completion of postoperative chemotherapy and Combined ]
- Patterns of Failure (i.e., Local, Regional, and Distant), Including Overall Survival (Death Due to Any Cause) [ Time Frame: From registration to date of local failure, regional failure, distant failure, death or last follow-up ]
- Rate of Anterior Posterior Resections [ Time Frame: From registration to end of follow-up ]
|Study Start Date:||April 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||January 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
IMRT + Chemotherapy , Resection, Postoperative Chemotherapy
Radiation therapy (intensity modulated radiation therapy [IMRT] + three dimensional conformal radiation therapy [3D-CRT]) + neoadjuvant chemotherapy (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) followed by resection and postoperative chemotherapy (FOLFOX)
1650 mg/m^2/day orally 5 days/week during radiotherapy.Drug: oxaliplatin
Other Name: 50 mg/m^2 IV over 2 hours weekly for five weeks starting on day 1 of radiotherapy.Procedure: resection
All patients undergo surgery 4 to 8 weeks following the completion of radiation therapy. The choice of procedure (abdominoperineal resection (APR), low anterior resection (LAR), or LAR/coloanal anastomosis) is at the discretion of the surgeon.Radiation: radiation therapy
Pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): 45 Gy in 25 fx Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) boost: 5.4 Gy in 3 fx to total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fxDrug: FOLFOX
Postoperative chemotherapy is administered to all patients who have a complete resection of rectal cancer with negative surgical margins and begins within 4-8 weeks following surgical resection, consisting of a total of 9 14-day cycles. Oxaliplatin 85 mg/m^2, IV over 2 hours, day 1.
Leucovorin 400 mg/m^2, IV over 2 hours, day 1. 5-fluorouracil bolus 400 mg/m^2, IV push, day 1. 5-fluorouracil infusion 2400 mg/m^2, IV continuous infusion over 46 hours, day 1.
Other Name: Oxaplatin, leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil
- To determine whether the incidence of neoadjuvant acute gastrointestinal toxicity (grade ≥ 2) associated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is reduced by inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-based radiation treatment when compared with conventionally delivered radiotherapy, as was utilized in the capecitabine and oxaliplatin arm of RTOG-0247 (NCT00081289).
- To evaluate the feasibility of performing IMRT in a cooperative group setting for the treatment of rectal cancer.
- To estimate the incidence of all toxicity (hematologic and non-hematologic) associated with protocol treatment in the neoadjuvant period, the adjuvant period, and overall.
- To estimate the pathologic complete response rate following neoadjuvant IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy.
- To estimate the time to treatment failure and patterns of failure.
- To correlate pre- and post-treatment levels of serum cytokines with symptoms during and pathological outcomes following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.
- To evaluate the rate of abdominoperineal resections.
OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.
- Chemoradiotherapy: Patients undergo inverse-planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the pelvis once daily, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks (total of 45 Gy) and a 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy boost to gross disease once daily for 3 days (total of 45 Gy). Beginning on the first day of radiotherapy and continuing through completion of radiotherapy, patients receive oral capecitabine twice daily, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks and oxaliplatin IV over 2 hours on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29.
- Surgery: Within 4-8 weeks after completion of chemoradiotherapy, patients undergo resection of the rectal tumor.
- Adjuvant chemotherapy: Beginning 4-8 weeks after surgery, patients with completely resected disease and negative surgical margins receive leucovorin calcium IV over 2 hours and oxaliplatin IV over 2 hours on day 1 and fluorouracil IV bolus on day 1 and fluorouracil IV infusion continuously over 46 hours beginning on day 1 . Treatment repeats every 14 days for up to 9 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Patients are followed every 3 months after the start of treatment for 2 years, every 6 months for years 3-5, and then annually thereafter.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00613080
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|Principal Investigator:||Michael C. Garofalo, MD||University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center|
|Study Chair:||Adam C. Berger, MD||Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University|
|Study Chair:||Johanna Bendell, MD||Duke Cancer Institute|