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Differences in Blood Levels of Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIV Infected Men and Women

This study has been completed.
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier:
First received: February 4, 2005
Last updated: December 2, 2015
Last verified: December 2015
Men's and women's bodies may process anti-HIV drugs differently. The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in blood levels of soft gel capsules and tablets of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) in HIV infected men and women.

Condition Intervention
HIV Infections
Drug: Lopinavir/ritonavir

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Sex Differences in Lopinavir/Ritonavir Pharmacokinetics Among HIV-1-Infected Men and Women

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Lopinavir (LPV) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for 0 to 12 hours

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • LPV maximum concentration (Cmax), concentration at 12 hours (C12h), and apparent oral clearance (CL/F)
  • LPV AUC for 0 to 12 hours, Cmax, C12h, CL/F, and participant's race and ethnicity
  • LPV AUC for 0 to 12 hours, Cmax, C12h, CL/F, participant's age, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and coadministration of TDF
  • LPV AUC for 0 to 12 hours, Cmax, C12h, CL/F, and graded signs and symptoms
  • LPV AUC for 0 to 12 hours, Cmax, C12h, CL/F, and graded gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (defined as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating)
  • ritonavir (RTV) AUC for 0 to 12 hours, Cmax, C12h, and CL/F
  • LPV/r AUC for 0 to 12 hours, Cmax, C12h, CL/F for both the soft gel capsule and tablet formulations

Enrollment: 116
Study Start Date: October 2005
Study Completion Date: July 2007
Detailed Description:

It is estimated that 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are women. HIV infected women face different psychosocial issues than men, and their bodies may react differently to HIV treatment. However, most of the data on the safety and efficacy of antiretrovirals (ARVs) used in the treatment of HIV infection are from studies conducted primarily in men. LPV/r in tablet form was approved by the FDA in October 2005. This study will determine the differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) in men and women taking a soft gel capsule and a tablet formulation of LPV/r.

No ARVs will be provided by this study. In Step 1, participants will receive soft gel capsules of LPV/r. All Step 1 participants will be asked to join Step 2 of the study upon completion of Step 1. In Step 2, participants will receive tablets of LPV/r. During the study, participants in both Step 1 and 2 will take a treatment regimen of LPV/r twice daily and one or more of the following: a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, or enfuvirtide. Medical and medication history, blood collection, and clinical assessments will occur at study screening for both Steps 1 and 2. Participants in both steps will be asked to complete a medication diary from study entry to the day of the PK visit. The PK visit will occur within 30 days of study screening; blood collection for PK analysis will also occur at this visit.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Note: Step 1 enrollment ended as of 06/28/06.

Inclusion Criteria

  • HIV infected
  • Have taken twice-daily LPV/r (soft gel formulation for Step 1 participants and tablet formulation for Step 2 participants) for at least 14 days immediately prior to step screening and are willing to continue taking LPV/r until the PK visit of that step
  • Have taken LPV/r in combination with at least one of the following for at least 14 days immediately prior to study step screening: zidovudine, lamivudine, emtricitabine, stavudine, abacavir sulfate, didanosine, zalcitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, enfuvirtide, AND are willing to continue taking them until the PK visit of that step
  • Body weight of more than 50 kg (110 lbs) for Step 1 participants only

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or dual protease inhibitor regimen within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Require certain medications
  • Current drug or alcohol abuse that, in the investigator's opinion, may interfere with the study
  • Serious illness requiring systemic treatment or hospitalization within 30 days of study screening
  • Acute AIDS-related opportunistic infection within 90 days of study entry
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00102986

  Show 29 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Study Chair: Judith S. Currier, MD, MSc Center for AIDS Research and Education, University of California, Los Angeles
  More Information

Responsible Party: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Identifier: NCT00102986     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: A5223
ACTG A5223
10026 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS ES )
Study First Received: February 4, 2005
Last Updated: December 2, 2015

Keywords provided by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID):
Treatment Experienced

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Protease Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Anti-HIV Agents
Anti-Retroviral Agents
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors processed this record on April 24, 2017