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Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D)

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: July 23, 2001
Last Update Posted: September 25, 2009
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by:
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
STAR*D focuses on non-psychotic major depressive disorder in adults who are seen in outpatient settings. The primary purpose of this research study is to determine which treatments work best if the first treatment with medication does not produce an acceptable response. Participants will first receive citalopram, an SSRI medication; if symptoms remain after 8-12 weeks of treatment, up to four other levels of treatment will be offered, including cognitive therapy and other medications. There are no placebo treatments. Some patients may require a combination of two or more treatments to obtain full benefit. Participation could last from 15 to 27 months and involve up to 30 clinic visits. Participants will be interviewed by telephone throughout the study about their symptoms, daily functioning, treatment side effects, use of the health care system, and satisfaction with treatment. There will be a one-year follow up for participants once their depression has been successfully treated

Condition Intervention Phase
Depression Drug: citalopram Drug: BuproprionSR Drug: buspirone Drug: Lithium Drug: mirtazapine Drug: nortriptyline Drug: sertraline Drug: tranylcypromine Drug: VenlafaxineXR Behavioral: Cognitive Therapy Drug: T3 (Triiodothyronine) Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression

Further study details as provided by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH):

Estimated Enrollment: 4000
Study Start Date: July 2001
Estimated Study Completion Date: September 2006
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Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
- Outpatients aged 18 to 75 years old with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (HAMD score 14 or greater)
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00021528

  Show 41 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Study Director: A. John Rush, MD University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Department of Psychiatry
  More Information

Additional Information:
Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Warden D, Ritz L, Norquist G, Howland RH, Lebowitz B, McGrath PJ, Shores-Wilson K, Biggs MM, Balasubramani GK, Fava M; STAR*D Study Team. Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: implications for clinical practice. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;163(1):28-40.
Pilowsky DJ, Wickramaratne PJ, Rush AJ, Hughes CW, Garber J, Malloy E, King CA, Cerda G, Sood AB, Alpert JE, Wisniewski SR, Trivedi MH, Talati A, Carlson MM, Liu HH, Fava M, Weissman MM. Children of currently depressed mothers: a STAR*D ancillary study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;67(1):126-36.
Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Warden D, McKinney W, Downing M, Berman SR, Farabaugh A, Luther JF, Nierenberg AA, Callan JA, Sackeim HA. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among outpatients with major depressive disorder: a STAR*D report. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;67(2):185-95.
Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Stewart JW, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, Ritz L, Biggs MM, Warden D, Luther JF, Shores-Wilson K, Niederehe G, Fava M; STAR*D Study Team. Bupropion-SR, sertraline, or venlafaxine-XR after failure of SSRIs for depression. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 23;354(12):1231-42.
Weissman MM, Pilowsky DJ, Wickramaratne PJ, Talati A, Wisniewski SR, Fava M, Hughes CW, Garber J, Malloy E, King CA, Cerda G, Sood AB, Alpert JE, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ; STAR*D-Child Team. Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology: a STAR*D-child report. JAMA. 2006 Mar 22;295(12):1389-98. Erratum in: JAMA. 2006 Sep 13;296(10):1234.
Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, Quitkin F, Warden D, Ritz L, Nierenberg AA, Lebowitz BD, Biggs MM, Luther JF, Shores-Wilson K, Rush AJ; STAR*D Study Team. Medication augmentation after the failure of SSRIs for depression. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 23;354(12):1243-52.
Fava M, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Alpert JE, McGrath PJ, Thase ME, Warden D, Biggs M, Luther JF, Niederehe G, Ritz L, Trivedi MH. A comparison of mirtazapine and nortriptyline following two consecutive failed medication treatments for depressed outpatients: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;163(7):1161-72.
McGrath PJ, Stewart JW, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, Davis L, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Luther JF, Niederehe G, Warden D, Rush AJ. Tranylcypromine versus venlafaxine plus mirtazapine following three failed antidepressant medication trials for depression: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;163(9):1531-41; quiz 1666.
Nierenberg AA, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, McGrath PJ, Alpert JE, Warden D, Luther JF, Niederehe G, Lebowitz B, Shores-Wilson K, Rush AJ. A comparison of lithium and T(3) augmentation following two failed medication treatments for depression: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;163(9):1519-30; quiz 1665.
Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Stewart JW, Warden D, Niederehe G, Thase ME, Lavori PW, Lebowitz BD, McGrath PJ, Rosenbaum JF, Sackeim HA, Kupfer DJ, Luther J, Fava M. Acute and longer-term outcomes in depressed outpatients requiring one or several treatment steps: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;163(11):1905-17.
McMahon FJ, Buervenich S, Charney D, Lipsky R, Rush AJ, Wilson AF, Sorant AJ, Papanicolaou GJ, Laje G, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Manji H. Variation in the gene encoding the serotonin 2A receptor is associated with outcome of antidepressant treatment. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 May;78(5):804-14. Epub 2006 Mar 20.
Alpert JE, Biggs MM, Davis L, Shores-Wilson K, Harlan WR, Schneider GW, Ford AL, Farabaugh A, Stegman D, Ritz AL, Husain MM, Macleod L, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ; STAR*D Investigators. Enrolling research subjects from clinical practice: ethical and procedural issues in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Feb 28;141(2):193-200. Epub 2006 Feb 2.
Khan AY, Carrithers J, Preskorn SH, Lear R, Wisniewski SR, John Rush A, Stegman D, Kelley C, Kreiner K, Nierenberg AA, Fava M. Clinical and demographic factors associated with DSM-IV melancholic depression. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Apr-Jun;18(2):91-8.
Wisniewski SR, Leon AC, Otto MW, Trivedi MH. Prevention of missing data in clinical research studies. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jun 1;59(11):997-1000. Epub 2006 Mar 29. Review.
Fava M, Rush AJ. Current status of augmentation and combination treatments for major depressive disorder: a literature review and a proposal for a novel approach to improve practice. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75(3):139-53. Review.
Nierenberg AA, Trivedi MH, Fava M, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani GK, Rush AJ. Family history of mood disorder and characteristics of major depressive disorder: a STAR*D (sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression) study. J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Apr-Jun;41(3-4):214-21. Epub 2006 May 11.
Claassen CA, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Husain MM, Zisook S, Young E, Leuchter A, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani GK, Alpert J. Clinical differences among depressed patients with and without a history of suicide attempts: findings from the STAR*D trial. J Affect Disord. 2007 Jan;97(1-3):77-84. Epub 2006 Jul 7.
Gilmer WS, Kemp DE. STAR*D: What Have We Learned Thus Far? International Drug Therapy Newsletter 41:75-82, 2006.
Fava M, Rush AJ, Alpert JE, Carmin CN, Balasubramani GK, Wisniewski SR, Trivedi MH, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K. What clinical and symptom features and comorbid disorders characterize outpatients with anxious major depressive disorder: a replication and extension. Can J Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;51(13):823-35.
Murphy SA, Oslin DW, Rush AJ, Zhu J; MCATS. Methodological challenges in constructing effective treatment sequences for chronic psychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Feb;32(2):257-62. Epub 2006 Nov 8.
Zisook S, Rush AJ, Lesser I, Wisniewski SR, Trivedi M, Husain MM, Balasubramani GK, Alpert JE, Fava M. Preadult onset vs. adult onset of major depressive disorder: a replication study. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Mar;115(3):196-205.
Adli M, Rush AJ, Möller HJ, Bauer M. Algorithms for optimizing the treatment of depression: making the right decision at the right time. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003 Nov;36 Suppl 3:S222-9. Review.
Fava M, Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Nierenberg AA, Thase ME, Sackeim HA, Quitkin FM, Wisniewski S, Lavori PW, Rosenbaum JF, Kupfer DJ. Background and rationale for the sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D) study. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003 Jun;26(2):457-94, x. Review.
Rush AJ, Trivedi M, Fava M. Depression, IV: STAR*D treatment trial for depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;160(2):237.
Lavori PW, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Alpert J, Fava M, Kupfer DJ, Nierenberg A, Quitkin FM, Sackeim HA, Thase ME, Trivedi M. Strengthening clinical effectiveness trials: equipoise-stratified randomization. Biol Psychiatry. 2001 Nov 15;50(10):792-801.
Rush AJ, Fava M, Wisniewski SR, Lavori PW, Trivedi MH, Sackeim HA, Thase ME, Nierenberg AA, Quitkin FM, Kashner TM, Kupfer DJ, Rosenbaum JF, Alpert J, Stewart JW, McGrath PJ, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Lebowitz BD, Ritz L, Niederehe G; STAR*D Investigators Group. Sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D): rationale and design. Control Clin Trials. 2004 Feb;25(1):119-42.
Wisniewski SR, Stegman D, Trivedi M, Husain MM, Eng H, Shores-Wilson K, Luther J, Biggs MM, Burroughs D, Ritz AL, Fava M, Quitkin F, Rush AJ; STAR*D Investigators. Methods of testing feasibility for sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D). J Psychiatr Res. 2004 May-Jun;38(3):241-8.
Wisniewski SR, Eng H, Meloro L, Gatt R, Ritz L, Stegman D, Trivedi M, Biggs MM, Friedman E, Shores-Wilson K, Warden D, Bartolowits D, Martin JP, Rush AJ. Web-based communications and management of a multi-center clinical trial: the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) project. Clin Trials. 2004;1(4):387-98.
Nierenberg AA, Trivedi MH, Ritz L, Burroughs D, Greist J, Sackeim H, Kornstein S, Schwartz T, Stegman D, Fava M, Wisniewski SR. Suicide risk management for the sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression study: applied NIMH guidelines. J Psychiatr Res. 2004 Nov-Dec;38(6):583-9.
Yates WR, Mitchell J, Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Warden D, Hauger RB, Fava M, Gaynes BN, Husain MM, Bryan C. Clinical features of depressed outpatients with and without co-occurring general medical conditions in STAR*D. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2004 Nov-Dec;26(6):421-9.
Fava M, Alpert JE, Carmin CN, Wisniewski SR, Trivedi MH, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Morgan D, Schwartz T, Balasubramani GK, Rush AJ. Clinical correlates and symptom patterns of anxious depression among patients with major depressive disorder in STAR*D. Psychol Med. 2004 Oct;34(7):1299-308.
Friedman EF, Thase ME, Biggs MM, Carmin C, Hollon SD, Kornblith SJ, Petersen T, Veenstra G, Wisniewski SR, and Rush AJ. The implementation of cognitive therapy in STAR*D. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28:819-833, 2004.
Zisook S, Rush AJ, Albala A, Alpert J, Balasubramani GK, Fava M, Husain M, Sackeim H, Trivedi M, Wisniewski S. Factors that differentiate early vs. later onset of major depression disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2004 Dec 15;129(2):127-40.
Davis LL, Rush JA, Wisniewski SR, Rice K, Cassano P, Jewell ME, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Balasubramani GK, Husain MM, Quitkin FM, McGrath PJ. Substance use disorder comorbidity in major depressive disorder: an exploratory analysis of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression cohort. Compr Psychiatry. 2005 Mar-Apr;46(2):81-9.
Perlis RH, Fraguas R, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Luther JF, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. Prevalence and clinical correlates of irritability in major depressive disorder: a preliminary report from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Feb;66(2):159-66; quiz 147, 273-4.
Warden D, Rush AJ, Trivedi M, Ritz L, Stegman D, Wisniewski SR. Quality improvement methods as applied to a multicenter effectiveness trial--STAR*D. Contemp Clin Trials. 2005 Feb;26(1):95-112. Epub 2005 Jan 27.
Gaynes BN, Rush AJ, Trivedi M, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani GK, Spencer DC, Petersen T, Klinkman M, Warden D, Schneider RK, Castro DB, Golden RN. A direct comparison of presenting characteristics of depressed outpatients from primary vs. specialty care settings: preliminary findings from the STAR*D clinical trial. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2005 Mar-Apr;27(2):87-96.
Kornstein SG, Harvey AT, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Trivedi MH, Svikis DS, McKenzie ND, Bryan C, Harley R. Self-reported premenstrual exacerbation of depressive symptoms in patients seeking treatment for major depression. Psychol Med. 2005 May;35(5):683-92.
Rush AJ, Zimmerman M, Wisniewski SR, Fava M, Hollon SD, Warden D, Biggs MM, Shores-Wilson K, Shelton RC, Luther JF, Thomas B, Trivedi MH. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in depressed outpatients: demographic and clinical features. J Affect Disord. 2005 Jul;87(1):43-55.
Marcus SM, Young EA, Kerber KB, Kornstein S, Farabaugh AH, Mitchell J, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani GK, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ. Gender differences in depression: findings from the STAR*D study. J Affect Disord. 2005 Aug;87(2-3):141-50.
Lesser IM, Leuchter AF, Trivedi MH, Davis LL, Wisniewski SR, Balasubramani GK, Petersen T, Stegman D, Rush AJ. Characteristics of insured and noninsured outpatients with depression in STAR(*)D. Psychiatr Serv. 2005 Aug;56(8):995-1004.
Novick JS, Stewart JW, Wisniewski SR, Cook IA, Manev R, Nierenberg AA, Rosenbaum JF, Shores-Wilson K, Balasubramani GK, Biggs MM, Zisook S, Rush AJ; STAR*D investigators. Clinical and demographic features of atypical depression in outpatients with major depressive disorder: preliminary findings from STAR*D. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;66(8):1002-11.
Husain MM, Rush AJ, Sackeim HA, Wisniewski SR, McClintock SM, Craven N, Holiner J, Mitchell JR, Balasubramani GK, Hauger R. Age-related characteristics of depression: a preliminary STAR*D report. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;13(10):852-60.
Gaynes, B.N., Davis, L., Rush A.J., Trivedi, M., Fava, M., Wisniewski, S.R. The aims and design of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Primary Psychiatry, 12(2):36-41, 2005.
Friedman EF, Thase ME, Biggs MM, Carmin C, Hollon SD, Kornblith SJ, Petersen T, Veenstra G, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. The implementation of cognitive therapy in STAR*D. Cognit Ther Res 2004;28:819-33.
Gaynes BN, Davis L, Rush AJ, Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR. The aims and design of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Primary Psychiatry 2005;12(2):36-41. http://www.primarypsychiatry.com/pdf/art_4845.pdf
Gilmer WS, Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Luther J, Howland RH, Yohanna D, Khan A, Alpert J. Factors associated with chronic depressive episodes: a preliminary report from the STAR-D project. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2005 Dec;112(6):425-33.
Hollon SD, Shelton RC, Wisniewski S, Warden D, Biggs MM, Friedman ES, Husain M, Kupfer DJ, Nierenberg AA, Petersen TJ, Shores-Wilson K, Rush AJ. Presenting characteristics of depressed outpatients as a function of recurrence: preliminary findings from the STAR*D clinical trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2006 Feb;40(1):59-69. Epub 2005 Oct 21.
Rush AJ, Bernstein IH, Trivedi MH, Carmody TJ, Wisniewski S, Mundt JC, Shores-Wilson K, Biggs MM, Woo A, Nierenberg AA, Fava M. An evaluation of the quick inventory of depressive symptomatology and the hamilton rating scale for depression: a sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression trial report. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Mar 15;59(6):493-501. Epub 2005 Sep 30.
Davis LL, Frazier E, Husain MM, Warden D, Trivedi M, Fava M, Cassano P, McGrath PJ, Balasubramani GK, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. Substance use disorder comorbidity in major depressive disorder: a confirmatory analysis of the STAR*D cohort. Am J Addict. 2006 Jul-Aug;15(4):278-85.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Steiner AJ, Recacho J, Vanle B, Dang J, Wright SM, Miller JS, Kauzor K, Reid M, Bashmi LE, Mirocha J, Danovitch I, IsHak WW. Quality of Life, Functioning, and Depressive Symptom Severity in Older Adults With Major Depressive Disorder Treated With Citalopram in the STAR*D Study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;78(7):897-903. doi: 10.4088/JCP.16m11335.
Fried EI, van Borkulo CD, Epskamp S, Schoevers RA, Tuerlinckx F, Borsboom D. Measuring depression over time . . . Or not? Lack of unidimensionality and longitudinal measurement invariance in four common rating scales of depression. Psychol Assess. 2016 Nov;28(11):1354-1367. Epub 2016 Jan 28.
Coughlin CG, Jakubovski E, Bloch MH. Time Course and Predictors of Suicidal Ideation During Citalopram Treatment in the STAR*D Trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Oct;77(10):e1262-e1269. doi: 10.4088/JCP.15m10075.
Pearson R, Palmer RH, Brick LA, McGeary JE, Knopik VS, Beevers CG. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder. J Abnorm Psychol. 2016 May;125(4):495-501. doi: 10.1037/abn0000161.
Cocchi E, Fabbri C, Han C, Lee SJ, Patkar AA, Masand PS, Pae CU, Serretti A. Genome-wide association study of antidepressant response: involvement of the inorganic cation transmembrane transporter activity pathway. BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Apr 18;16:106. doi: 10.1186/s12888-016-0813-x.
Fervaha G, Foussias G, Takeuchi H, Agid O, Remington G. Motivational deficits in major depressive disorder: Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with functional impairment and subjective well-being. Compr Psychiatry. 2016 Apr;66:31-8. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.12.004. Epub 2015 Dec 18.
Chekroud AM, Zotti RJ, Shehzad Z, Gueorguieva R, Johnson MK, Trivedi MH, Cannon TD, Krystal JH, Corlett PR. Cross-trial prediction of treatment outcome in depression: a machine learning approach. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;3(3):243-50. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00471-X. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
Ulbricht CM, Dumenci L, Rothschild AJ, Lapane KL. Changes in depression subtypes for women during treatment with citalopram: a latent transition analysis. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016 Oct;19(5):769-78. doi: 10.1007/s00737-016-0606-8. Epub 2016 Jan 22.
Xu MY, Umbach DM, Murphy E, McMahon F, Shugart YY. A Novel Mixture Model to Estimate the Time to Drug Effect Onset and Its Association with Covariates. Hum Hered. 2015;80(2):90-9. doi: 10.1159/000440880. Epub 2016 Jan 16.
Baer L, Trivedi MH, Huz I, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Fava M. Prevalence and impact of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in depression: a STAR*D report. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Dec;76(12):1668-74. doi: 10.4088/JCP.14m09670.
Minelli A, Magri C, Barbon A, Bonvicini C, Segala M, Congiu C, Bignotti S, Milanesi E, Trabucchi L, Cattane N, Bortolomasi M, Gennarelli M. Proteasome system dysregulation and treatment resistance mechanisms in major depressive disorder. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Dec 1;5:e687. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.180.
Fried EI, Epskamp S, Nesse RM, Tuerlinckx F, Borsboom D. What are 'good' depression symptoms? Comparing the centrality of DSM and non-DSM symptoms of depression in a network analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016 Jan 1;189:314-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.09.005. Epub 2015 Oct 1.
Ulbricht CM, Rothschild AJ, Lapane KL. The association between latent depression subtypes and remission after treatment with citalopram: A latent class analysis with distal outcome. J Affect Disord. 2015 Dec 1;188:270-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.039. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
Boles RG, Zaki EA, Kerr JR, Das K, Biswas S, Gardner A. Increased prevalence of two mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in functional disease: Are we describing different parts of an energy-depleted elephant? Mitochondrion. 2015 Jul;23:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2015.04.005. Epub 2015 Apr 29.
Fabbri C, Crisafulli C, Gurwitz D, Stingl J, Calati R, Albani D, Forloni G, Calabrò M, Martines R, Kasper S, Zohar J, Juven-Wetzler A, Souery D, Montgomery S, Mendlewicz J, Girolamo GD, Serretti A. Neuronal cell adhesion genes and antidepressant response in three independent samples. Pharmacogenomics J. 2015 Dec;15(6):538-48. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2015.15. Epub 2015 Apr 7.
Congiu C, Minelli A, Bonvicini C, Bortolomasi M, Sartori R, Maj C, Scassellati C, Maina G, Trabucchi L, Segala M, Gennarelli M. The role of the potassium channel gene KCNK2 in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Feb 28;225(3):489-92. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.061. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
Fried EI, Nesse RM. Depression is not a consistent syndrome: An investigation of unique symptom patterns in the STAR*D study. J Affect Disord. 2015 Feb 1;172:96-102. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.010. Epub 2014 Oct 14.
Arias B, Fabbri C, Serretti A, Drago A, Mitjans M, Gastó C, Catalán R, Fañanás L. DISC1-TSNAX and DAOA genes in major depression and citalopram efficacy. J Affect Disord. 2014 Oct;168:91-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.048. Epub 2014 Jul 5.
Drago A, Cocchi E, Crisafulli C, Serretti A. A molecular pathway analysis of the glutamatergic-monoaminergic interplay serves to investigate the number of depressive records during citalopram treatment. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2015 Mar;122(3):465-75. doi: 10.1007/s00702-014-1267-2. Epub 2014 Jul 2.
IsHak WW, Mirocha J, James D, Tobia G, Vilhauer J, Fakhry H, Pi S, Hanson E, Nashawati R, Peselow ED, Cohen RM. Quality of life in major depressive disorder before/after multiple steps of treatment and one-year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015 Jan;131(1):51-60. doi: 10.1111/acps.12301. Epub 2014 Jun 23.
Ferguson M, Dennehy EB, Marangell LB, Martinez J, Wisniewski SR. Impact of fatigue on outcome of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment: secondary analysis of STAR*D. Curr Med Res Opin. 2014 Oct;30(10):2109-18. doi: 10.1185/03007995.2014.936553. Epub 2014 Jul 4.
Jakubovski E, Bloch MH. Prognostic subgroups for citalopram response in the STAR*D trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014 Jul;75(7):738-47. doi: 10.4088/JCP.13m08727.
Ostergaard SD, Bech P, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ, Fava M. Brief, unidimensional melancholia rating scales are highly sensitive to the effect of citalopram and may have biological validity: implications for the research domain criteria (RDoC). J Affect Disord. 2014 Jul;163:18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.03.049. Epub 2014 Apr 3.
Tada M, Uchida H, Suzuki T, Abe T, Pollock BG, Mimura M. Baseline difference between patients' and clinicians' rated illness severity scores and subsequent outcomes in major depressive disorder: analysis of the sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression data. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014 Jun;34(3):297-302. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000112.
Fabbri C, Marsano A, Albani D, Chierchia A, Calati R, Drago A, Crisafulli C, Calabrò M, Kasper S, Lanzenberger R, Zohar J, Juven-Wetzler A, Souery D, Montgomery S, Mendlewicz J, Serretti A. PPP3CC gene: a putative modulator of antidepressant response through the B-cell receptor signaling pathway. Pharmacogenomics J. 2014 Oct;14(5):463-72. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2014.15. Epub 2014 Apr 8.
Fried EI, Nesse RM. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 28;9(2):e90311. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090311. eCollection 2014.
Sakurai H, Uchida H, Abe T, Nakajima S, Suzuki T, Pollock BG, Sato Y, Mimura M. Trajectories of individual symptoms in remitters versus non-remitters with depression. J Affect Disord. 2013 Nov;151(2):506-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.035. Epub 2013 Jul 22.
IsHak WW, Mirocha J, Christensen S, Wu F, Kwock R, Behjat J, Pi S, Akopyan A, Peselow ED, Cohen RM, Elashoff D. Patient-reported outcomes of quality of life, functioning, and depressive symptom severity in major depressive disorder comorbid with panic disorder before and after SSRI treatment in the star*d trial. Depress Anxiety. 2014 Aug;31(8):707-16. doi: 10.1002/da.22152. Epub 2013 Jul 16.
Murphy E, Hou L, Maher BS, Woldehawariat G, Kassem L, Akula N, Laje G, McMahon FJ. Race, genetic ancestry and response to antidepressant treatment for major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013 Dec;38(13):2598-606. doi: 10.1038/npp.2013.166. Epub 2013 Jul 5.
Fabbri C, Marsano A, Balestri M, De Ronchi D, Serretti A. Clinical features and drug induced side effects in early versus late antidepressant responders. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Oct;47(10):1309-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.020. Epub 2013 Jun 22.
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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00021528     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: N01 MH90003
First Submitted: July 20, 2001
First Posted: July 23, 2001
Last Update Posted: September 25, 2009
Last Verified: September 2006

Keywords provided by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH):
Sequential Treatment
Major Depression
Treatment Resistant Depression

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Depressive Disorder
Behavioral Symptoms
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders
Antidepressive Agents
Psychotropic Drugs
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Neurotransmitter Agents
Serotonin Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists
Adrenergic Antagonists
Adrenergic Agents
Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
Histamine H1 Antagonists
Histamine Antagonists
Histamine Agents
Anti-Anxiety Agents
Tranquilizing Agents

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