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CATIE- Schizophrenia Trial

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00014001
First Posted: April 9, 2001
Last Update Posted: June 17, 2015
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by:
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
  Purpose
The CATIE Schizophrenia Trial is part of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Project. The schizophrenia trial is being conducted to determine the long-term effects and usefulness of antipsychotic medications in persons with schizophrenia. It is designed for people with schizophrenia who may benefit from a medication change. The study involves the newer atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, clozapine, and ziprasidone)and the typical antipsychotics (perphenazine and fluphenazine decanoate). All participants will receive an initial comprehensive medical and psychiatric evaluation and will be closely followed throughout the study. For most participants the study will last up to 18 months. Everyone in the study will be offered an educational program about schizophrenia and family members will be encouraged to participate.

Condition Intervention Phase
Schizophrenia Drug: perphenazine Drug: olanzapine Drug: quetiapine Drug: risperidone Drug: ziprasidone Drug: clozapine Drug: fluphenazine decanoate Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Comparative Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Medications in Patients With Schizophrenia (CATIE Schizophrenia Trial)

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH):

Estimated Enrollment: 1600
Study Start Date: December 2000
Estimated Study Completion Date: December 2004
Detailed Description:

This trial will consist of 1600 patients with schizophrenia for whom a medication change may be indicated for reasons of limited efficacy or tolerability. All patients will receive some psychosocial treatment through study participation. Research participants and their family members will be offered psychosocial interventions directed at improving patient and family understanding of the illness, decreasing the burden of illness in the family, maximizing treatment adherence, minimizing relapse, enhancing access to a range of community-based rehabilitative services and improving study retention.

Phase I: Patients will be randomly assigned to one of five treatment conditions for up to 18 months:

  1. 320 begin double-blind treatment with perphenazine (PER)
  2. 320 begin double-blind treatment with olanzapine (OLZ)
  3. 320 begin double-blind treatment with quetiapine (QUET)
  4. 320 begin double-blind treatment with risperidone (RIS)
  5. 220 begin double-blind treatment with ziprasidone (ZIP)

Phase IA: 100 patients screened and found to have tardive dyskinesia who would otherwise be eligible for the study will be randomly assigned to one of the four atypical drugs in Phase IA.

Phase IB: Patients who fail treatment with perphenazine in Phase I will be randomly assigned to olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone in Phase IB.

Phase II: Patients who discontinue their initial assigned atypical antipsychotic treatment in Phase I, IA, or IB for any non-administrative reason will proceed to their second assigned treatment (third for Phase IB patients) and will be followed for up to the remainder of their 18-month participation, as follows:

  1. Patients originally assigned to one of the newer atypical antipsychotics who discontinue due to efficacy failure will be randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with one of the other two newer atypical antipsychotics (OLZ, RIS, QUET) which they had not previously received (50%) or with open label clozapine (50%).
  2. Patients originally assigned to one of the newer atypical antipsychotics who discontinue due to tolerability failure will be randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with one of the other newer atypical antipsychotics (OLZ, RIS, QUET) which they had not previously received (50%), or with ziprasidone (50%). Until ziprasidone is activated, all patients will be assigned to one of the other atypical antipsychotics.

Phase II will last at least 6 months, even if that means participants stay in the study for more than 18 months

Phase III: Patients who discontinue Phase II will be recommended open treatment with the preferred regimen based on their treatment history in the study. The treatment options include clozapine, newer atypical antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprazidone, and aripiprazole), fluphenazine decanoate, perphenazine, and dual antipsychotic therapy using two of these drugs.

Note: All treatments will be double-blinded in treatment Phases I and II except for clozapine.

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion

  • 18-65 years old
  • DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia
  • adequate capacity to consent

Exclusion

  • Intolerance or failure to respond to one of the treatments
  • Diagnoses of schizoaffective disorder, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder, delirium, dementia, amnesia
  • First episode of schizophrenia
  • Women currently pregnant or breast-feeding
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00014001


  Hide Study Locations
Locations
United States, California
Synergy Clinical Research
Chula Vista, California, United States, 91910
LA County-University of Southern California Medical Center
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90033
University of California, Irvine
Orange, California, United States, 92868
University of California,San Diego/VA Medical System
San Diego, California, United States, 92161
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, California, United States, 94305
Harbor UCLA Research & Education Institute
Torrance, California, United States, 90502
United States, Connecticut
New Britain General Hospital
New Britain, Connecticut, United States, 06050
Yale University/Connecticut Mental Health Center
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06519
United States, Florida
Mental Health Advocates Inc.
Boca Raton, Florida, United States, 33432
VA Medical Center
Miami, Florida, United States, 33125
University of Miami School of Medicine
Miami, Florida, United States, 33316
United States, Georgia
Emory University School of Medicine
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30319
United States, Hawaii
The Queen's Medical Center
Honolulu, Hawaii, United States, 96813
United States, Illinois
Northwestern Medical School Department of Psychiatry
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60634
Southern Illinois University School of Medicine
Springfield, Illinois, United States, 62702
United States, Iowa
University of Iowa Hospital
Iowa City, Iowa, United States, 52242
United States, Kansas
Psychiatric Research Institute, Outpatient Clinic
Wichita, Kansas, United States, 67214
United States, Louisiana
Louisiana State University Health Services Center
Shreveport, Louisiana, United States, 71130
United States, Maryland
Clinical Insights, Inc.
Glen Burnie, Maryland, United States, 21061
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital-Freedom Trial Clinic Schizophrenia Program
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02135
Corrigan Mental Health Center
Fall River, Massachusetts, United States, 02720
University Of Massachusetts Memorial Health Care
Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, 01605
United States, Minnesota
University of Minnesota School of Medicine
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55454
United States, Mississippi
University of Mississippi VA Medical Center
Jackson, Mississippi, United States, 39216
United States, Missouri
University of Missouri Kansas City Medical School
Kansas City, Missouri, United States, 64108
Burrell Behavioral Health-Cox North Hospital
Springfield, Missouri, United States, 65802
Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, Missouri, United States, 63112
United States, New Mexico
Albuquerque VA Medical Center
Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States, 87124
United States, New York
Mount Sinai Medical Center-Bronx VA Medical Center
Bronx, New York, United States, 10468
SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Brooklyn, New York, United States, 11203
Mount Sinai Medical Center
New York, New York, United States, 10029
University of Rochester Medical Center
Rochester, New York, United States, 14620
Staten Island University Hospital
Staten Island, New York, United States, 10305
United States, North Carolina
Duke University Medical Center-John Umstead Hospital
Butner, North Carolina, United States, 27509
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States, 27599
Behavioral Health Center
Charlotte, North Carolina, United States, 28203
Dorothea Dix Hospital
Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, 27603
United States, Ohio
Appalachian Psychiatric Healthcare System
Athens, Ohio, United States, 45701
North East Ohio Health Services
Beachwood, Ohio, United States, 44122
United States, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia VA Medical Center
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19129
Belmont Center for Comprehensive Treatment
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19131
United States, South Carolina
Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Charleston, South Carolina, United States, 29401
United States, Tennessee
Vanderbilt University Schizophrenia Research
Nashville, Tennessee, United States, 37212
United States, Texas
Tri-County MHMR Services
Conroe, Texas, United States, 77304
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas, Texas, United States, 75390
Life Management Center for MH/MR Services
El Paso, Texas, United States, 98493
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
MHMRA of Harris County-Northwest Community Service Center
Houston, Texas, United States, 77092
The Center for Health Care Services
San Antonio, Texas, United States, 78208
United States, Utah
Valley Mental Health Psychopharmacology Research Center
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84117
University of Utah Medical Center
Salt Lake City, Utah, United States, 84132
United States, Washington
VA Puget Sound Health Care System
Tacoma, Washington, United States, 98493
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Investigators
Study Director: Jeffrey A Lieberman, MD University of North Carolina
  More Information

Publications:
Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Rosenheck RA, Perkins DO, Keefe RS, Davis SM, Davis CE, Lebowitz BD, Severe J, Hsiao JK; Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Investigators. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 22;353(12):1209-23. Epub 2005 Sep 19. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 9;363(11):1092-3.
McEvoy JP, Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, Davis SM, Meltzer HY, Rosenheck RA, Swartz MS, Perkins DO, Keefe RS, Davis CE, Severe J, Hsiao JK; CATIE Investigators. Effectiveness of clozapine versus olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia who did not respond to prior atypical antipsychotic treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;163(4):600-10.
Stroup TS, Lieberman JA, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Davis SM, Rosenheck RA, Perkins DO, Keefe RS, Davis CE, Severe J, Hsiao JK; CATIE Investigators. Effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia following discontinuation of a previous atypical antipsychotic. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;163(4):611-22.
Rosenheck RA, Leslie DL, Sindelar J, Miller EA, Lin H, Stroup TS, McEvoy J, Davis SM, Keefe RS, Swartz M, Perkins DO, Hsiao JK, Lieberman J; CATIE Study Investigators. Cost-effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine in a randomized trial of treatment for chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;163(12):2080-9.
Essock SM, Covell NH, Davis SM, Stroup TS, Rosenheck RA, Lieberman JA. Effectiveness of switching antipsychotic medications. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Dec;163(12):2090-5.
Davis SM, Koch GG, Davis CE, LaVange LM. Statistical approaches to effectiveness measurement and outcome-driven re-randomizations in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) studies. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):73-80.
Keefe RS, Mohs RC, Bilder RM, Harvey PD, Green MF, Meltzer HY, Gold JM, Sano M. Neurocognitive assessment in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) project schizophrenia trial: development, methodology, and rationale. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):45-55.
Lieberman JA, Stroup TS. Guest editors' introduction: what can large pragmatic clinical trials do for public mental health care? Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):1-6.
Rosenheck R, Doyle J, Leslie D, Fontana A. Changing environments and alternative perspectives in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of new antipsychotic drugs. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):81-93.
Sernyak MJ, Leslie D, Rosenheck R. Use of system-wide outcomes monitoring data to compare the effectiveness of atypical neuroleptic medications. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;160(2):310-5.
Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Byerly MJ, Glick ID, Canive JM, McGee MF, Simpson GM, Stevens MC, Lieberman JA. The National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) project: schizophrenia trial design and protocol development. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):15-31.
Swartz MS, Perkins DO, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Nieri JM, Haak DC. Assessing clinical and functional outcomes in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial. Schizophr Bull. 2003;29(1):33-43.
Stroup TS, Appelbaum PS. Evaluation of "subject advocate" procedures in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study. Schizophr Bull. 2006 Jan;32(1):147-52. Epub 2005 Nov 10.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Moodie EE, Karran JC, Shortreed SM. A case study of SMART attributes: a qualitative assessment of generalizability, retention rate, and trial quality. Trials. 2016 May 14;17(1):242. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1368-3. Review.
Jakubovski E, Carlson JP, Bloch MH. Prognostic subgroups for remission, response, and treatment continuation in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Nov;76(11):1535-45. doi: 10.4088/JCP.14m09320.
Takeuchi H, Fervaha G, Remington G. Effect of Antipsychotic Dosing Regimen on Neurocognition in Schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015 Dec;35(6):728-30. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000424.
Fervaha G, Agid O, Takeuchi H, Lee J, Foussias G, Remington G. Relationship between symptomatic improvement and overall illness severity in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015 Apr;35(2):128-33. doi: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000286.
Fervaha G, Agid O, Takeuchi H, Foussias G, Lee J, Remington G. Clinical and functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia with a high sense of well-being. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015 Mar;203(3):187-93. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000266.
Fervaha G, Takeuchi H, Lee J, Foussias G, Fletcher PJ, Agid O, Remington G. Antipsychotics and amotivation. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 May;40(6):1539-48. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.3. Epub 2015 Jan 8.
Fervaha G, Takeuchi H, Agid O, Lee J, Foussias G, Remington G. Determinants of patient-rated and clinician-rated illness severity in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Jul;76(7):924-30. doi: 10.4088/JCP.14m09128.
Fervaha G, Zakzanis KK, Foussias G, Graff-Guerrero A, Agid O, Remington G. Motivational deficits and cognitive test performance in schizophrenia. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Sep;71(9):1058-65. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1105.
Marques TR, Levine SZ, Reichenberg A, Kahn R, Derks EM, Fleischhacker WW, Rabinowitz J, Kapur S. How antipsychotics impact the different dimensions of Schizophrenia: a test of competing hypotheses. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Aug;24(8):1279-88. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 Apr 24.
Fervaha G, Foussias G, Agid O, Remington G. Motivational and neurocognitive deficits are central to the prediction of longitudinal functional outcome in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2014 Oct;130(4):290-9. doi: 10.1111/acps.12289. Epub 2014 May 22.
Fervaha G, Agid O, Takeuchi H, Foussias G, Remington G. Effect of antipsychotic medication on overall life satisfaction among individuals with chronic schizophrenia: findings from the NIMH CATIE study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Jul;24(7):1078-85. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.03.001. Epub 2014 Mar 15.
Fervaha G, Foussias G, Siddiqui I, Agid O, Remington G. Abbreviated quality of life scales for schizophrenia: comparison and utility of two brief community functioning measures. Schizophr Res. 2014 Apr;154(1-3):89-92. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.02.013. Epub 2014 Mar 11.
Witt K, Hawton K, Fazel S. The relationship between suicide and violence in schizophrenia: analysis of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) dataset. Schizophr Res. 2014 Apr;154(1-3):61-7. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.02.001. Epub 2014 Feb 26.
Takeuchi H, Fervaha G, Uchida H, Suzuki T, Bies RR, Grönte D, Remington G. Impact of once- versus twice-daily perphenazine dosing on clinical outcomes: an analysis of the CATIE data. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014 May;75(5):506-11. doi: 10.4088/JCP.13m08695.
Bahorik AL, Newhill CE, Queen CC, Eack SM. Letter to the editor: Critique of Bahorik et al. (2013)--'Underreporting of drug use among individuals with schizophrenia: prevalence and predictors'--a reply. Psychol Med. 2014 Feb;44(3):670-1.
Laber EB, Lizotte DJ, Ferguson B. Set-valued dynamic treatment regimes for competing outcomes. Biometrics. 2014 Mar;70(1):53-61. doi: 10.1111/biom.12132. Epub 2014 Jan 8.
Fervaha G, Agid O, Takeuchi H, Foussias G, Remington G. Clinical determinants of life satisfaction in chronic schizophrenia: data from the CATIE study. Schizophr Res. 2013 Dec;151(1-3):203-8. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.10.021. Epub 2013 Nov 1.
Fervaha G, Agid O, Takeuchi H, Foussias G, Remington G. Life satisfaction among individuals with schizophrenia in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Sep;170(9):1061-2. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13010060.
Takeuchi H, Suzuki T, Bies RR, Remington G, Mamo DC, Pollock BG, Mimura M, Uchida H. Estimated dopamine D2 receptor occupancy from plasma concentrations of atypical antipsychotics and subjective experience/drug attitude in schizophrenia: an analysis of the CATIE data. Schizophr Res. 2013 Nov;150(2-3):373-9. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.033. Epub 2013 Sep 9. Erratum in: Schizophr Res. 2015 Mar;162(1-3):296.
Tsuboi T, Bies RR, Suzuki T, Mamo DC, Pollock BG, Graff-Guerrero A, Mimura M, Uchida H. Hyperprolactinemia and estimated dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in patients with schizophrenia: analysis of the CATIE data. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 1;45:178-82. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2013.05.010. Epub 2013 May 29.
Fervaha G, Remington G. Validation of an abbreviated quality of life scale for schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Sep;23(9):1072-7. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.11.009. Epub 2012 Dec 9.
Levine SZ, Rabinowitz J, Faries D, Lawson AH, Ascher-Svanum H. Treatment response trajectories and antipsychotic medications: examination of up to 18 months of treatment in the CATIE chronic schizophrenia trial. Schizophr Res. 2012 May;137(1-3):141-6. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2012.01.014. Epub 2012 Feb 7.
Sakurai H, Bies RR, Stroup ST, Keefe RS, Rajji TK, Suzuki T, Mamo DC, Pollock BG, Watanabe K, Mimura M, Uchida H. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and cognition in schizophrenia: analysis of the CATIE data. Schizophr Bull. 2013 May;39(3):564-74. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbr189. Epub 2012 Jan 30.
Levine SZ, Rabinowitz J, Ascher-Svanum H, Faries DE, Lawson AH. Extent of attaining and maintaining symptom remission by antipsychotic medication in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia: evidence from the CATIE study. Schizophr Res. 2011 Dec;133(1-3):42-6. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2011.09.018. Epub 2011 Oct 14.
Addington DE, Mohamed S, Rosenheck RA, Davis SM, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Lieberman JA. Impact of second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine on depressive symptoms in a randomized trial of treatment for chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;72(1):75-80. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05258gre. Epub 2010 Sep 21.
Caroff SN, Davis VG, Miller DD, Davis SM, Rosenheck RA, McEvoy JP, Campbell EC, Saltz BL, Riggio S, Chakos MH, Swartz MS, Keefe RS, Stroup TS, Lieberman JA; CATIE Investigators. Treatment outcomes of patients with tardive dyskinesia and chronic schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;72(3):295-303. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09m05793yel. Epub 2010 Aug 10.
Meyer JM, McEvoy JP, Davis VG, Goff DC, Nasrallah HA, Davis SM, Hsiao JK, Swartz MS, Stroup TS, Lieberman JA. Inflammatory markers in schizophrenia: comparing antipsychotic effects in phase 1 of the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness study. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Dec 1;66(11):1013-22. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.005. Epub 2009 Jul 29.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00014001     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: N01 MH090001-06
N01MH90001-SZ
DSIR AT
First Submitted: April 6, 2001
First Posted: April 9, 2001
Last Update Posted: June 17, 2015
Last Verified: October 2006

Keywords provided by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH):
Antipsychotic Treatment
Effectiveness

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Mental Disorders
Risperidone
Ziprasidone
Clozapine
Antipsychotic Agents
Olanzapine
Quetiapine Fumarate
Perphenazine
Fluphenazine
Fluphenazine depot
Fluphenazine enanthate
Serotonin Antagonists
Serotonin Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Tranquilizing Agents
Central Nervous System Depressants
Psychotropic Drugs
Dopamine Antagonists
Dopamine Agents
Antiemetics
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators


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