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Framingham Heart Study

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Identifier:
First received: May 25, 2000
Last updated: April 13, 2016
Last verified: April 2009
The Framingham Heart Study was initiated to study the factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease by employing long-term surveillance of an adult population in Framingham, Massachusetts. The Framingham Offspring Study was initiated to assess familial and genetic factors as determinants of coronary heart disease.

Cardiovascular Diseases Heart Diseases Coronary Disease Cerebrovascular Accident Hypertension Heart Failure, Congestive Peripheral Vascular Diseases Arterial Occlusive Diseases Atherosclerosis Heart Failure

Study Type: Observational

Further study details as provided by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI):

Study Start Date: July 1948
Study Completion Date: September 2008
Primary Completion Date: September 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  Hide Detailed Description

Detailed Description:


The Framingham Heart Study, initiated in 1948, was designed as a longitudinal investigation of constitutional and environmental factors influencing the development of cardiovascular disease in men and women free of these conditions at the outset. The first person was examined in September 1948 and four years later 5,209 persons had received their first examination. The group has now been followed in the Study for twenty-four subsequent biennial examinations. The need for more information arises from the fact that the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease is incompletely known, estimation of risk is imprecise, and the pattern of cardiovascular disease incidence is changing; these changes need to be documented. Changing patterns of cigarette smoking, nutritional habits and exercise patterns as well as changes in other aspects of lifestyle and advances in medical care may all influence future morbidity and mortality rates for cardiovascular disease. New cases of clinically recognizable cardiovascular disease are less predictable in disease free subjects over age 60, and an already large and growing proportion of the total cardiovascular disease events is now first expressed at these ages. Recently available, technologically advanced measurement tools such as echocardiography need to be evaluated as risk assessors in various age groups. Similarly, the predictive efficacy of recently available lipoprotein cholesterol and apoprotein measurements need to be demonstrated for early onset (age less than 60) as well as later onset cardiovascular disease. Thus, as changes in early detection and treatment of cardiovascular disease advance, prospective epidemiology is needed to document the value and impact of these changes in an organized fashion. Finally, the availability of prospective data on two generations adds to the uniqueness of the Framingham Study among ongoing studies of CVD epidemiology. A determination of the extent and mechanisms by which cardiovascular diseases cluster in families is another important goal of the Framingham Study.

In 1982, the National Institute on Aging initiated a study on senile dementia using the Framingham Heart Study cohort. The study was designed to determine morbidity and mortality outcomes among the 160 subjects identified as suffering from dementia at the 15th biennial examination and to determine incidence of senile dementia among those subjects free of dementia at the 15th biennial examination. Outcome of nursing home admissions was also determined in all study participants.

Biennial comprehensive examinations of the Framingham Heart Study cohort have taken place since 1949. Until examination 12, the study was carried out entirely by the NHLBI. After that time, the Boston University Medical Center, in collaboration with, and using facilities and equipment made available by NHLBI, was responsible for the examinations.


Biennial examinations are conducted in the surviving original cohort to obtain information on physical activity, blood pressure, diet, body weight, occupational history, psychosocial factors, and personal habits such as smoking. Special tests include electrocardiographic evaluation, exercise stress test, HLA typing, lipoprotein and apoprotein testing, non-invasive assessment of atherosclerosis, fasting blood glucose, lung function testing, B-scan/Doppler of the carotid and or femoral arteries, and clotting or hemostatic measures. Endpoints include coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease.

Members of the Offspring Study were examined for the first time between 1971 and 1975, for the second time between 1979 and 1983, for the third time between 1983 and 1987. Examinations consist of a complete physical examination including resting electrocardiogram, medical history, non-invasive cardiovascular examination, lung function assessment, lipoprotein cholesterol and apoprotein measurements, SMA 25, personal history interview, blood cell ion flux measurement, and platelet function and blood clotting factors measurement.

The 27th exam of approximately 400 survivors of the original cohort is complete. The 28th exam has begun and is ahead of schedule. The 7th exam of the Offspring Cohort began in September 1998 and was completed in December 2001 with 3,500 participants examined. The genome scan is complete with approximately 1,800 samples from 336 families. A Genetics Advisory Panel meets regularly to advise NHLBI on the direction of genetic research within the Framingham Study. Analysis of the genetic and nongenetic data is ongoing and extensive covering such areas as the genetics of lipids, lifetime risk of coronary heart disease, trends in events following Q-wave myocardial infarction, factors affecting left ventricular hypertrophy, and the prevalence and determinants of heart valve disorders.

Initiation of the Third Generation Study was announced in November 2001. Beginning in 2002, the Third Generation Study enrolled 3,900 grandchildren of the Framingham Heart Study's original enrollees. Key goals are to identify new risk factors for heart, lung, and blood diseases, identify genes that contribute to good health and to the development of heart, lung, and blood disease, and to develop new imaging tests that can detect very early stages of coronary atherosclerosis in otherwise healthy adults.


Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 100 Years   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
No eligibility criteria
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00005121

Sponsors and Collaborators
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
OverallOfficial: Philip Wolf Boston University
  More Information

Study Data/Documents: Individual Participant Data Set  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Cohort
NHLBI provides controlled access to IPD through BioLINCC. Access requires registration, evidence of local IRB approval, and completion of a data use agreement.
Study Protocol  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Cohort
Study Forms  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Cohort
Data Coding Manuals  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Cohort
Individual Participant Data Set  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-OS
NHLBI provides controlled access to IPD through BioLINCC. Access requires registration, evidence of local IRB approval, and completion of a data use agreement.
Study Protocol  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-OS
Study Forms  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-OS
Data Coding Manuals  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-OS
Individual Participant Data Set  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Gen III
NHLBI provides controlled access to IPD through BioLINCC. Access requires registration, evidence of local IRB approval, and completion of a data use agreement.
Study Protocol  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Gen III
Study Forms  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Gen III
Data Coding Manuals  This link exits the site
Identifier: FHS-Gen III

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Fretts AM, Follis JL, Nettleton JA, Lemaitre RN, Ngwa JS, Wojczynski MK, Kalafati IP, Varga TV, Frazier-Wood AC, Houston DK, Lahti J, Ericson U, van den Hooven EH, Mikkilä V, Kiefte-de Jong JC, Mozaffarian D, Rice K, Renström F, North KE, McKeown NM, Feitosa MF, Kanoni S, Smith CE, Garcia ME, Tiainen AM, Sonestedt E, Manichaikul A, van Rooij FJ, Dimitriou M, Raitakari O, Pankow JS, Djoussé L, Province MA, Hu FB, Lai CQ, Keller MF, Perälä MM, Rotter JI, Hofman A, Graff M, Kähönen M, Mukamal K, Johansson I, Ordovas JM, Liu Y, Männistö S, Uitterlinden AG, Deloukas P, Seppälä I, Psaty BM, Cupples LA, Borecki IB, Franks PW, Arnett DK, Nalls MA, Eriksson JG, Orho-Melander M, Franco OH, Lehtimäki T, Dedoussis GV, Meigs JB, Siscovick DS. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov;102(5):1266-78. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.101238. Epub 2015 Sep 9.
Dashti HS, Follis JL, Smith CE, Tanaka T, Cade BE, Gottlieb DJ, Hruby A, Jacques PF, Lamon-Fava S, Richardson K, Saxena R, Scheer FA, Kovanen L, Bartz TM, Perälä MM, Jonsson A, Frazier-Wood AC, Kalafati IP, Mikkilä V, Partonen T, Lemaitre RN, Lahti J, Hernandez DG, Toft U, Johnson WC, Kanoni S, Raitakari OT, Perola M, Psaty BM, Ferrucci L, Grarup N, Highland HM, Rallidis L, Kähönen M, Havulinna AS, Siscovick DS, Räikkönen K, Jørgensen T, Rotter JI, Deloukas P, Viikari JS, Mozaffarian D, Linneberg A, Seppälä I, Hansen T, Salomaa V, Gharib SA, Eriksson JG, Bandinelli S, Pedersen O, Rich SS, Dedoussis G, Lehtimäki T, Ordovás JM. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan;101(1):135-43. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.095026. Epub 2014 Nov 26.
Tanaka T, Ngwa JS, van Rooij FJ, Zillikens MC, Wojczynski MK, Frazier-Wood AC, Houston DK, Kanoni S, Lemaitre RN, Luan J, Mikkilä V, Renstrom F, Sonestedt E, Zhao JH, Chu AY, Qi L, Chasman DI, de Oliveira Otto MC, Dhurandhar EJ, Feitosa MF, Johansson I, Khaw KT, Lohman KK, Manichaikul A, McKeown NM, Mozaffarian D, Singleton A, Stirrups K, Viikari J, Ye Z, Bandinelli S, Barroso I, Deloukas P, Forouhi NG, Hofman A, Liu Y, Lyytikäinen LP, North KE, Dimitriou M, Hallmans G, Kähönen M, Langenberg C, Ordovas JM, Uitterlinden AG, Hu FB, Kalafati IP, Raitakari O, Franco OH, Johnson A, Emilsson V, Schrack JA, Semba RD, Siscovick DS, Arnett DK, Borecki IB, Franks PW, Kritchevsky SB, Lehtimäki T, Loos RJ, Orho-Melander M, Rotter JI, Wareham NJ, Witteman JC, Ferrucci L, Dedoussis G, Cupples LA, Nettleton JA. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;97(6):1395-402. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.052183. Epub 2013 May 1. Identifier: NCT00005121     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 900
Study First Received: May 25, 2000
Last Updated: April 13, 2016

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Heart Failure
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Coronary Disease
Coronary Artery Disease
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Myocardial Ischemia
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases processed this record on September 20, 2017