Effects of Hormone Therapy on the Immune Systems of Postmenopausal Women With Chronic Infections
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00001890|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 10, 2002
Last Update Posted : March 4, 2008
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Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and heart disease are much more common in men than in women. However, as women grow older, especially after menopause the incidence of atherosclerosis and heart disease increases. These findings suggest that estrogen may be protective and help in preventing heart disease.
Studies of large groups of post-menopausal women suggest that hormone replacement therapy (therapy that includes estrogen) reduces the risk of heart disease. Estrogen causes favorable changes in particles that carry cholesterol in the blood stream and improves function of blood vessels. Estrogen may also stimulate the immune system's ability to fight off infections that may lead to or contribute to atherosclerosis.
Researchers believe two specific infectious agents (Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus) may cause damage to the lining of blood vessels resulting in inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis.
The purpose of this study is to determine if estrogen treatment can change how the immune system responds to chronic infections, by Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus, in postmenopausal women.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Atherosclerosis Chlamydia Infections Cytomegalovirus Infections Pneumonia, Bacterial Postmenopause||Drug: Estrogen therapy||Phase 2|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Enrollment :||80 participants|
|Official Title:||Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Women With Chronic Chlamydia Pneumoniae or Cytomegalovirus Infection|
|Study Start Date :||May 1999|
|Study Completion Date :||March 2001|
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||Child, Adult, Older Adult|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||Female|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
Must be a postmenopausal woman 65 years of age or younger.
Time since last date of menses should be at least 12 months, with plasma estradiol less than 50 pg/ml and FSH greater than 50 pg/ml.
Women must be without clinical evidence of CAD as determined by history, cardiovascular physical examination, and EKG.
Must not have used hormone replacement therapy within past 6 months.
Must not have used dietary supplements and any medication (over-the-counter or prescribed) within 1 month. Acetaminophen use is allowed.
Must not have a history of alcoholism or binge-drinking.
Must not have diabetes mellitus or known abnormal glucose intolerance test.
Must not have a history of stroke, angina or myocardial infarction.
Must not have a history of deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism.
Must not have a history of cancer (except for treated squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas).
Must not have evidence of liver disease (liver function enzymes greater than twice the upper limit of normal).
Must not have impaired renal function (creatinine greater than 1.6 mg/dl).
Must not have a diagnosis of an autoimmune disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, Raynaud's Disease).
Must not have a history of intermittent vaginal bleeding.
Must not have serum triglycerides greater than 400 mg/dL.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00001890
|United States, Maryland|
|National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI)|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||December 10, 2002 Key Record Dates|
|Last Update Posted:||March 4, 2008|
|Last Verified:||May 2000|
Respiratory Tract Infections
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
DNA Virus Infections
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections and Mycoses
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists