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Career Enhancement Training Study (USAF) (CETS)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04067401
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 26, 2019
Results First Posted : July 8, 2020
Last Update Posted : July 8, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
United States Department of Defense
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Peter Wyman, University of Rochester

Study Type Interventional
Study Design Allocation: Randomized;   Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment;   Masking: None (Open Label);   Primary Purpose: Prevention
Condition Suicidal Ideation
Interventions Behavioral: Wingman Connect
Behavioral: Stress Management
Enrollment 1485
Recruitment Details Recruitment of classes was staggered over 16 months-Oct 2017 - Jan 2019-with classes matched. Clusters of class units within training squadron were formed over time as they became available, selected to maximize balance (e.g., AFSC), and randomized to one of two training conditions.
Pre-assignment Details  
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Period Title: Overall Study
Started 748 737
Baseline Survey Completion 746 735
1 Month Survey Completion 697 694
6 Month Survey Completion 629 618
Completed 740 737
Not Completed 8 0
Reason Not Completed
Withdrawal by Subject             7             0
no data provided             1             0
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management Total
Hide Arm/Group Description

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Total of all reporting groups
Overall Number of Baseline Participants 746 735 1481
Hide Baseline Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Age, Categorical  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 746 participants 735 participants 1481 participants
<=18 years
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
Between 18 and 65 years
746
 100.0%
735
 100.0%
1481
 100.0%
>=65 years
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
0
   0.0%
Age, Continuous  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Years
Number Analyzed 746 participants 735 participants 1481 participants
20.96  (3.255) 20.87  (3.019) 20.92  (3.140)
Sex: Female, Male   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 744 participants 731 participants 1475 participants
Female
128
  17.2%
125
  17.1%
253
  17.2%
Male
616
  82.8%
606
  82.9%
1222
  82.8%
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: 2 participants in Wingman Connect and 4 participants in Stress Management did not report Sex in baseline survey
Ethnicity (NIH/OMB)  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 746 participants 735 participants 1481 participants
Hispanic or Latino
137
  18.4%
154
  21.0%
291
  19.6%
Not Hispanic or Latino
608
  81.5%
581
  79.0%
1189
  80.3%
Unknown or Not Reported
1
   0.1%
0
   0.0%
1
   0.1%
Race (NIH/OMB)   [1] 
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 746 participants 735 participants 1481 participants
American Indian or Alaska Native
6
   0.8%
5
   0.7%
11
   0.7%
Asian
31
   4.2%
31
   4.2%
62
   4.2%
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
9
   1.2%
10
   1.4%
19
   1.3%
Black or African American
91
  12.2%
83
  11.3%
174
  11.7%
White
498
  66.8%
483
  65.7%
981
  66.2%
More than one race
59
   7.9%
72
   9.8%
131
   8.8%
Unknown or Not Reported
52
   7.0%
51
   6.9%
103
   7.0%
[1]
Measure Description: 47 in Wingman Connect and 46 in Stress Management reported 'Other' in race - these are included in the 'Not reported' category.
Educational Background  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 746 participants 735 participants 1481 participants
GED
30
   4.0%
23
   3.1%
53
   3.6%
High School Diploma
597
  80.0%
571
  77.7%
1168
  78.9%
Associates Degree
72
   9.7%
87
  11.8%
159
  10.7%
Bachelor's Degree or higher
47
   6.3%
54
   7.3%
101
   6.8%
Military Component  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 746 participants 735 participants 1481 participants
Active Duty
617
  82.7%
596
  81.1%
1213
  81.9%
National Guard
92
  12.3%
90
  12.2%
182
  12.3%
Reserves
37
   5.0%
49
   6.7%
86
   5.8%
1.Primary Outcome
Title Mean Computerized Adaptive Testing for Suicide Severity
Hide Description Participants will complete a computerized adaptive test for suicide severity. Participants will answer questions about their mental health. Participant scores will range from 0-100 with 100 indicating higher likelihood of current suicidal ideation and higher risk for suicide attempt.
Time Frame 6 months
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Some participants completed the main survey, but not the computerized adaptive test section.
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 577 571
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
10.76  (13.87) 12.12  (13.50)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .062
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value -0.13
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
-.29 to .01
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
2.Primary Outcome
Title Mean Computerized Adaptive Testing for Suicide Severity
Hide Description Participants will complete a computerized adaptive test for suicide severity. Participants will answer questions about their mental health. Participant scores will range from 0-100 with 100 indicating higher likelihood of current suicidal ideation and higher risk for suicide attempt.
Time Frame 1 month
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Some participants completed the main survey, but not the computerized adaptive test section.
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 657 661
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
11.05  (13.25) 13.43  (13.94)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .001
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value -0.23
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
-.39 to -.09
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
3.Secondary Outcome
Title Mean Computerized Adaptive Testing for Depression
Hide Description Participants will complete a computerized adaptive test for depression. Participants will answer questions about their mental health. Participant scores will range from 0-100 with 100 indicating higher risk for clinical depression.
Time Frame 6 months
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Some participants completed the main survey, but not the computerized adaptive test section.
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 577 571
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
13.36  (17.18) 15.64  (15.21)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .027
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value -0.16
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
-.34 to -.02
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
4.Secondary Outcome
Title Computerized Adaptive Testing for Depression
Hide Description Participants will complete a computerized adaptive test for depression. Participants will answer questions about their mental health. Participant scores will range from 0-100 with 100 indicating higher risk for clinical depression.
Time Frame 1 month
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
Some participants completed the main survey, but not the computerized adaptive test section.
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 657 661
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
15.42  (16.93) 18.38  (16.87)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .002
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value -0.24
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
-.41 to -.08
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
5.Secondary Outcome
Title Mean Behavioral Occupational Performance Outcomes
Hide Description Participants will complete 5 yes/no questions about job performance, including if superior has expressed concerns about work performance, if Airman has received corrective training for substandard performance, received a negative counseling statement, received a Letter of Reprimand. The sum of affirmative responses will be calculated. Scores will range from 0-5 with 5 indicating greater work impairment.
Time Frame 6 months
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 629 618
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
0.29  (0.93) 0.28  (0.94)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .821
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value 0.01
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
-.12 to .11
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
6.Secondary Outcome
Title Mean Behavioral Occupational Performance Outcomes
Hide Description Participants will complete 5 yes/no questions about job performance, including if superior has expressed concerns about work performance, if Airman has received corrective training for substandard performance, received a negative counseling statement, received a Letter of Reprimand. The sum of affirmative responses will be calculated. Scores will range from 0-5 with 5 indicating greater work impairment.
Time Frame 1 month
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 685 681
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
0.17  (0.62) 0.25  (0.73)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .024
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value -0.14
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
-.31 to -.02
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
7.Secondary Outcome
Title Mean Class Cohesion
Hide Description Participants will complete a 3-item scale on how well members of their class cooperate, can depend on each other and stand up for each other. Scores range from 0 to 4 with higher scores indicating higher class cohesion.
Time Frame 1 month
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 687 698
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
3.16  (0.72) 3.05  (0.75)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .012
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value 0.18
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
.04 to .29
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
8.Secondary Outcome
Title Mean Number of Positive Connections to Classmates
Hide Description Participants will be asked to name up to 5 other students in their class who they respect and would choose to spend time with. Participants can name 0-5 classmates.
Time Frame 1 month
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cognitive responses. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 687 698
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: classmates
2.08  (1.61) 1.83  (1.56)
Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Stress Management
Comments [Not Specified]
Type of Statistical Test Superiority
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value .010
Comments Model adjusts for class (random effect) and sex, age, race/ethnicity, and Air Force component
Method Mixed Models Analysis
Comments [Not Specified]
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Effect size
Estimated Value 0.21
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
.05 to .35
Estimation Comments [Not Specified]
Time Frame 6 months
Adverse Event Reporting Description [Not Specified]
 
Arm/Group Title Wingman Connect Stress Management
Hide Arm/Group Description

Wingman-Connect total training time is 5 hours, typically spread over three consecutive training 'blocks'(or days), plus 1-hour of booster training (one month later).

Wingman Connect: Wingman-Connect combines group and individual skill training. Group exercises build cohesion, belonging and shared purpose, and promote value of healthy unit, giving and receiving support. Individual skills promote the ability to thrive during transitions, manage stressors and meet career goals, and decrease barriers to utilizing organizational resources (family, health). The training has a total of 22 modules comprised of specific learning objectives and activities. Six months of text messages (1-2 per week) to reinforce and extend program concepts and skills.

The control training condition will consist of a 2 hr. informational training that provides an overview of the human stress response system and strategies to manage stress.

Stress Management: Stress management training reviews the basics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress-response system; common experiences of stress (physiological, cognitive, emotional); the impact of chronic stress on the brain and other domains of health; how exercise reduces harmful effects of stress; and relaxation techniques that have been shown to reduce stress and adverse effects of stress on health. Additional modules review the physiological stress response and effects of stress on health; introduces how cognition influences stress responses; common cognitive distortions/attributions are reviewed that affect stress including strategies to strengthen protective cogn

All-Cause Mortality
Wingman Connect Stress Management
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/748 (0.00%)   0/737 (0.00%) 
Hide Serious Adverse Events
Wingman Connect Stress Management
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/748 (0.00%)   0/737 (0.00%) 
Hide Other (Not Including Serious) Adverse Events
Frequency Threshold for Reporting Other Adverse Events 0%
Wingman Connect Stress Management
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/748 (0.00%)   0/737 (0.00%) 
AiTs and training school leadership were not blinded to intervention condition. Second, outcomes relied on self-report. Third, trainers were research staff, and findings may not generalize to training by military personnel.
Certain Agreements
Principal Investigators are NOT employed by the organization sponsoring the study.
There is NOT an agreement between Principal Investigators and the Sponsor (or its agents) that restricts the PI's rights to discuss or publish trial results after the trial is completed.
Results Point of Contact
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Name/Title: Dr. Peter Wyman
Organization: University of Rochester Medical Center, Psychiatry Dept
Phone: 5852733372
EMail: peter_wyman@urmc.rochester.edu
Publications:
Williams, J, Brown, JM, Bray, RM, Anderson Goodell, EM, Olmsted, KR, Adler, AB. (2016) Unit Cohesion, Resilience, and Mental Health of Soldiers in Basic Combat Training, Military Psychology, 28:4, 241-250, DOI: 10.1037/mil0000120
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Responsible Party: Peter Wyman, University of Rochester
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04067401    
Other Study ID Numbers: 1337
First Submitted: August 21, 2019
First Posted: August 26, 2019
Results First Submitted: June 2, 2020
Results First Posted: July 8, 2020
Last Update Posted: July 8, 2020