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Increasing Engagement With a Healthy Food Benefit

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02486588
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 1, 2015
Results First Posted : July 10, 2020
Last Update Posted : July 10, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Pennsylvania

Study Type Interventional
Study Design Allocation: Randomized;   Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment;   Masking: None (Open Label);   Primary Purpose: Health Services Research
Conditions Purchasing Behaviors
Nutrition
Interventions Other: Messaging
Other: Financial incentives
Enrollment 7314
Recruitment Details  
Pre-assignment Details  
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly Message, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description 10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Period Title: Overall Study
Started 1188 1252 1220 1206 1243 1205
Completed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Not Completed 738 750 755 738 746 746
Reason Not Completed
Randomized in error- ineligible             738             750             755             738             746             746
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash Back, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash Back, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Weekly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS Total
Hide Arm/Group Description 10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Total of all reporting groups
Overall Number of Baseline Participants 450 502 465 468 497 459 2841
Hide Baseline Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Age, Continuous  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Years
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
47.9  (11.8) 48.3  (11.7) 47  (11.6) 47.4  (11.6) 47.7  (11.9) 48.5  (12) 47.8  (11.8)
Sex: Female, Male  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
Female
212
  47.1%
225
  44.8%
220
  47.3%
207
  44.2%
245
  49.3%
212
  46.2%
1321
  46.5%
Male
238
  52.9%
277
  55.2%
245
  52.7%
261
  55.8%
252
  50.7%
247
  53.8%
1520
  53.5%
Household Size  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  People
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
3  (1.3) 2.9  (1.3) 3  (1.2) 3  (1.2) 2.9  (1.2) 2.9  (1.3) 2.9  (1.2)
Vitality membership length  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Weeks
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
110.5  (56.9) 110.1  (56.2) 111.7  (58.3) 107.3  (55.6) 112.2  (58.2) 112.4  (57.8) 110.7  (57.1)
Region  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
Gauteng
289
  64.2%
329
  65.5%
302
  64.9%
326
  69.7%
329
  66.2%
291
  63.4%
1866
  65.7%
Kwazulu-Natal
39
   8.7%
41
   8.2%
46
   9.9%
35
   7.5%
51
  10.3%
43
   9.4%
255
   9.0%
Western Cape
86
  19.1%
102
  20.3%
76
  16.3%
72
  15.4%
83
  16.7%
85
  18.5%
504
  17.7%
Other
36
   8.0%
30
   6.0%
41
   8.8%
35
   7.5%
34
   6.8%
40
   8.7%
216
   7.6%
Shopping trips  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Trips per month
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
7.9  (4.4) 7.9  (4.1) 8.1  (4) 7.7  (4.3) 7.9  (4.1) 8.3  (4.2) 8  (4.2)
Monthly healthy spending  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Rand (South African currency) per month
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
895  (548.9) 923.4  (608.9) 851.8  (511.9) 843.5  (506) 878.9  (540.5) 901.1  (521.4) 883.4  (541.9)
Monthly unhealthy spending  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Rand (South African currency) per month
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
558.3  (347.1) 539  (302.2) 549  (326.1) 515  (303.6) 532  (313) 526.6  (332.4) 536.5  (320.6)
Monthly neutral spending  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Rand (South African Currency) per month
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
1823.5  (963.5) 1760.5  (881.9) 1818.8  (944.6) 1727.3  (888.4) 1736.5  (930.6) 1786.6  (900.5) 1774.6  (918.1)
Monthly healthy items  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Items per month
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
36.1  (21.2) 37.5  (23.7) 34.9  (20.5) 34.8  (21) 35.9  (21.6) 37.1  (20.6) 36.1  (21.5)
Monthly unhealthy items  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Items per month
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
26.4  (18.4) 24.6  (14.9) 25.2  (15.8) 23.7  (15.1) 24.2  (15.4) 24.1  (16.4) 24.7  (16)
Monthly neutral items  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Items per month
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
53.7  (28.8) 51.8  (26.2) 52.8  (27) 50.2  (25.7) 50.7  (26.1) 52.2  (27) 51.9  (26.8)
Monthly proportion of spending on healthy foods  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Percent of spending
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
27.5  (10.4) 28.3  (11.8) 26.6  (9.7) 27.7  (10.2) 27.9  (10.5) 28.5  (11.4) 27.7  (10.7)
Monthly proportion of spending on unhealthy foods  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Percent of spending
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
17.8  (7.6) 17.7  (7.3) 17.7  (7.6) 17.3  (6.8) 17.7  (7.5) 16.9  (7.5) 17.5  (7.4)
Monthly proportion of food items that were healthy  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Percent of items
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
31.4  (11.2) 32.5  (12.7) 30.8  (10.7) 32.1  (11.3) 32.2  (11.6) 33.1  (12.8) 32  (11.8)
Monthly proportion of food items that were unhealthy  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Percent of items
Number Analyzed 450 participants 502 participants 465 participants 468 participants 497 participants 459 participants 2841 participants
22.6  (9.5) 22.1  (9.3) 22.5  (9.4) 21.9  (9) 22.1  (9.2) 21.1  (9.3) 22.1  (9.3)
1.Primary Outcome
Title Monthly % Healthy Food Expenditure
Hide Description

The difference in monthly healthy food expenditures between arms. This measure is defined as the monthly amount spent on healthy foods divided by the total monthly amount spent on food, multiplied by 100.

For those individuals who had no recorded expenditure in a given month, they will be assigned 0% healthy food expenditure that month; in this way, this outcome can be considered a composite score of being engaged in the healthy food program (0%=not engaged) and the level of engagement (if monthly expenditure >0). Each individual's data will be averaged across the intervention period.

Time Frame Monthly over 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: Percentage of money per month
24.8  (11.4) 26.8  (12.9) 24.9  (11.7) 25.7  (11.5) 25.9  (12.7) 26.5  (13)
2.Secondary Outcome
Title Monthly % Unhealthy Food Expenditure
Hide Description

The difference in monthly unhealthy food expenditures between arms. This measure is defined as the monthly amount spent on unhealthy foods divided by the total monthly amount spent on food, multiplied by 100.

The average over the full intervention months will be calculated within an individual and compared between arms. To be complementary with the primary endpoint analysis, in a month where an individual is not engaged in the program (0 total monthly expenditure) the worst-score (100) is imputed for that month. A similar MI approach will also be conducted as a sensitivity analysis.

Time Frame Monthly over 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Error)
Unit of Measure: Percentage of money per month
24.4  (20.1) 21.7  (17.2) 22.4  (17.7) 21.7  (17.1) 23.9  (19.9) 22.3  (19.1)
3.Secondary Outcome
Title Monthly % Healthy Items
Hide Description

The difference in monthly healthy food items purchased between arms. This measure is defined as the monthly number of healthy food items divided by the total monthly number of food items.

The average over the full intervention months will be calculated within an individual and compared between arms. To be complementary with the primary endpoint analysis, in a month where an individual is not engaged in the program (0 total monthly expenditure) the worst-score (0) is imputed for that month. A similar MI approach will also be conducted as a sensitivity analysis.

Time Frame Monthly over 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly SNS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: Percentage of items per month
27.8  (12.5) 30.2  (13.9) 28.4  (12.7) 29.5  (12.8) 28.9  (13.6) 30  (14.5)
4.Secondary Outcome
Title Monthly % Unhealthy Items
Hide Description

The difference in monthly unhealthy food items purchased between arms. This measure is defined as the monthly number of unhealthy food items divided by the total monthly number of food items.

The average over the full intervention months will be calculated within an individual and compared between arms. To be complementary with the primary endpoint analysis, in a month where an individual is not engaged in the program (0 total monthly expenditure) the worst-score (100) is imputed for that month. A similar MI approach will also be conducted as a sensitivity analysis.

Time Frame Monthly over 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: Percentage of items per month
29.4  (19.8) 26.6  (17.5) 27.2  (17.7) 26.3  (17.2) 28.5  (19.8) 26.9  (19.2)
5.Secondary Outcome
Title Percentage Change in Monthly % Healthy Food Expenditures Between Arms
Hide Description Examining the difference in healthy food expenditure trends between arms where the % health food expenditure is defined as describe for outcome 1 (above)
Time Frame During the 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Error)
Unit of Measure: percentage change in % healthy spending
-.0839  (.0062) -.0777  (.0059) -.0717  (.0061) -.0769  (.0062) -.0729  (.0059) -.0742  (.0062)
6.Secondary Outcome
Title Percent Change in Monthly %Unhealthy Food Expenditures Between Arms
Hide Description Examining the difference in unhealthy food expenditure trends between arms where %unhealthy food expenditure is defined as described for Outcome 2 (above).
Time Frame During the 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly Message, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Error)
Unit of Measure: Percent change in % unhealthy food spend
.0836  (.0100) .0679  (.0095) .0579  (.0099) .0823  (.0098) .0928  (.0095) .0786  (.0099)
7.Secondary Outcome
Title Percent Change for Monthly % Healthy Food Items Between Arms
Hide Description Examining the difference in proportion healthy food item trends between arms where % healthy food items is defined as described for Outcome 3 (above)
Time Frame During the 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly Message, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Error)
Unit of Measure: Percent change in % healthy food items
-.0753  (.0066) -.0650  (.0062) -.0571  (.0064) -.0659  (.0064) -.0684  (.0062) -.0722  (.0065)
8.Secondary Outcome
Title Percent Change in Monthly %Unhealthy Food Items Between Arms
Hide Description Examining the difference in proportion unhealthy food item trends between arms where % unhealthy food items is defined as described for Outcome 5 (above).
Time Frame During the 6 month intervention period
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly Message, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description:
10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 450 502 465 468 497 459
Mean (Standard Error)
Unit of Measure: Percent change in % unhealthy food items
.0896  (.0099) .0698  (.0094) .0639  (.0098) .0854  (.0097) .1000  (.0094) .0817  (.0098)
Time Frame [Not Specified]
Adverse Event Reporting Description [Not Specified]
 
Arm/Group Title 10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Hide Arm/Group Description 10% cash back level, no weekly message, and the standard monthly message

10% cash back, general weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10 % cash back, personalized weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

25% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, standard monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

10%+15% cash back, personal weekly message, unbundled monthly message

Messaging: See detailed study description for overview of the different messaging interventions in this study

Financial incentives: See detailed study description for overview of the different financial incentive-based interventions in this study

All-Cause Mortality
10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   --/--   --/--   --/--   --/--   --/--   --/-- 
Hide Serious Adverse Events
10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/1188 (0.00%)   0/1252 (0.00%)   0/1220 (0.00%)   0/1206 (0.00%)   0/1243 (0.00%)   0/1205 (0.00%) 
Hide Other (Not Including Serious) Adverse Events
Frequency Threshold for Reporting Other Adverse Events 0%
10% Cash, no Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, General Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 25% Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Standard Monthly SMS 10+15%NET Cash, Personal Weekly SMS, Unbundled Monthly SMS
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/1188 (0.00%)   0/1252 (0.00%)   0/1220 (0.00%)   0/1206 (0.00%)   0/1243 (0.00%)   0/1205 (0.00%) 
Certain Agreements
Principal Investigators are NOT employed by the organization sponsoring the study.
There is NOT an agreement between Principal Investigators and the Sponsor (or its agents) that restricts the PI's rights to discuss or publish trial results after the trial is completed.
Results Point of Contact
Layout table for Results Point of Contact information
Name/Title: Anjali Gopalan
Organization: Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research
Phone: 510-891-3458
EMail: Anjali.Gopalan@kp.org
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: University of Pennsylvania
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02486588    
Other Study ID Numbers: 822607
First Submitted: June 29, 2015
First Posted: July 1, 2015
Results First Submitted: February 12, 2019
Results First Posted: July 10, 2020
Last Update Posted: July 10, 2020