Try the modernized ClinicalTrials.gov beta website. Learn more about the modernization effort.
Working…
ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Delays to Influence Snack Choice (DISC)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02359916
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 10, 2015
Results First Posted : January 26, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 23, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Brad Appelhans, Rush University Medical Center

Study Type Observational
Study Design Observational Model: Ecologic or Community;   Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Condition Food Choice
Interventions Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
Other: 25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks
Other: 25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks
Enrollment 32662
Recruitment Details  
Pre-assignment Details  
Arm/Group Title Baseline 1 Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax Baseline 2
Hide Arm/Group Description Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays. Baseline 1 was always the first condition at all vending sites.

Healthier snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, no delays

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at equal pricing with delays

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

Healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, plus delays on less healthy snacks

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, no delays

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, plus delays

Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays. Baseline 2 was always the last condition at all vending sites.
Period Title: Overall Study
Number of participants Number of units (Vends) Number of participants Number of units (Vends) Number of participants Number of units (Vends) Number of participants Number of units (Vends) Number of participants Number of units (Vends) Number of participants Number of units (Vends) Number of participants Number of units (Vends)
Started [1] NA [2] 5481 NA [2] 5784 NA [2] 7473 NA [2] 1996 NA [2] 2846 NA [2] 3438 NA [2] 5644
Completed NA [2] 5481 NA [2] 5784 NA [2] 7473 NA [2] 1996 NA [2] 2846 NA [2] 3438 NA [2] 5644
Not Completed NA 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 0
[1]
The unit of analysis for this study was vending machine sales ("vends").
[2]
The number of unique individuals in this study is unknown
Arm/Group Title Baseline 1 Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax Baseline 2 Total
Hide Arm/Group Description Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays. Baseline 1 was always the first condition at all vending sites.

Healthier snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, no delays

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at equal pricing with delays

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

Healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, plus delays on less healthy snacks

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, no delays

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, plus delays

Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays. Baseline 2 was always the last condition at all vending sites. Total of all reporting groups
Overall Number of Baseline Participants 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hide Baseline Analysis Population Description
The unit of analysis for this study were vending machine sales ("vends"). No data was collected from individual participants. The number of unique individuals in this study is unknown.
Age, Customized   [1] 
Number Analyzed 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants
[1]
Measure Description: Age was not collected in this study
Sex/Gender, Customized   [1] 
Number Analyzed 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants
[1]
Measure Description: Sex/Gender was not collected in this study
Race and Ethnicity Not Collected   [1] 
Number Analyzed 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants 0 participants
[1]
Measure Analysis Population Description: Race and Ethnicity were not collected from any participant.
1.Primary Outcome
Title Proportion of Healthy Snacks Purchased
Hide Description For each experimental condition, we will calculate the proportion of healthy vs unhealthy snacks sold over 4 weeks.
Time Frame 28 weeks per vending location
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
In this table, each vend is treated as an analyzed participant. No data were collected from individual human subjects. Analyses included all available data on healthy and regular snack vends. Data from Baseline 1 and Baseline 2 were combined into a single arm/group ("Baseline") in statistical analyses.
Arm/Group Title Baseline Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax
Hide Arm/Group Description:
Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays. Data from Baseline 1 and 2 were combined in this analysis.

Healthier snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, no delays

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at equal pricing with delays

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

Healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, plus delays on less healthy snacks

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, no delays

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, plus delays

Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed NA NA NA NA NA NA
Overall Number of Units Analyzed
Type of Units Analyzed: Vends
11125 5784 7473 1996 2846 3438
Measure Type: Number
Unit of Measure: proportion of vends from healthy snacks
.403 .431 .429 .465 .542 .501
2.Secondary Outcome
Title Total Daily Vending Revenue in US$/Day
Hide Description Total vending machine revenue under each condition
Time Frame Number of days per condition were as follows - Baseline: 119 days, Discount only: 59 days, Delay only: 68 days, Delay + Discount: 49 days, Tax only: 73 days, Delay + Tax: 60 days
Hide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
The unit of analysis is vending revenue per day ($/day). Data from Baseline 1 and Baseline 2 were combined into a single arm/group ("Baseline") in this analysis.
Arm/Group Title Baseline Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax
Hide Arm/Group Description:
Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays

Healthier snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, no delays

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at equal pricing with delays

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

Healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, plus delays on less healthy snacks

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, no delays

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, plus delays

Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Overall Number of Participants Analyzed NA NA NA NA NA NA
Overall Number of Units Analyzed
Type of Units Analyzed: Days
119 59 68 49 73 60
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: $/day
45.4  (31.6) 42.1  (33.3) 44.6  (27.7) 35.9  (21.0) 46.4  (35.6) 51.9  (66.5)
Time Frame [Not Specified]
Adverse Event Reporting Description Adverse events were not collected in this study.
 
Arm/Group Title Baseline Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax
Hide Arm/Group Description Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays

Healthier snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, no delays

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at equal pricing with delays

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

Healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, plus delays on less healthy snacks

25-second time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, no delays

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, plus delays

Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks

25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks

All-Cause Mortality
Baseline Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0 
Hide Serious Adverse Events
Baseline Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0 
Hide Other (Not Including Serious) Adverse Events
Frequency Threshold for Reporting Other Adverse Events 0%
Baseline Discount Only Delay Only Delay + Discount Tax Only Delay + Tax
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0   0/0 
Certain Agreements
Principal Investigators are NOT employed by the organization sponsoring the study.
There is NOT an agreement between Principal Investigators and the Sponsor (or its agents) that restricts the PI's rights to discuss or publish trial results after the trial is completed.
Results Point of Contact
Layout table for Results Point of Contact information
Name/Title: Brad Appelhans, PhD (PI)
Organization: Rush University Medical Center
Phone: 312-942-3477
EMail: brad_appelhans@rush.edu
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Brad Appelhans, Rush University Medical Center
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02359916    
Other Study ID Numbers: 13012802
First Submitted: February 2, 2015
First Posted: February 10, 2015
Results First Submitted: February 1, 2017
Results First Posted: January 26, 2018
Last Update Posted: February 23, 2018