GroundsKeeper: A Qualitative Study of Applied Game-based Interactives in Special Education Programs

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01808066
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 11, 2013
Results First Posted : September 9, 2014
Last Update Posted : February 23, 2018
Ohio University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
CogCubed, Corp

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment;   Masking: None (Open Label);   Primary Purpose: Treatment
Conditions: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Asperger's Disorder
Intervention: Device: Groundskeeper

  Participant Flow

Recruitment Details
Key information relevant to the recruitment process for the overall study, such as dates of the recruitment period and locations
No text entered.

Pre-Assignment Details
Significant events and approaches for the overall study following participant enrollment, but prior to group assignment
No text entered.

Reporting Groups
Treatment Group 21 participants with ADHD who underwent the intervention for 3 weeks, played for 20 minutes at a time at school.

Participant Flow:   Overall Study
    Treatment Group
Withdrawal by Subject                15 

  Baseline Characteristics

Population Description
Explanation of how the number of participants for analysis was determined. Includes whether analysis was per protocol, intention to treat, or another method. Also provides relevant details such as imputation technique, as appropriate.
students at school grades K-6

Reporting Groups
Play Groundskeeper

This study will employ design-based research models (Laurel, 2003) to the executive-functioning training game GroundsKeeper by CogCubed; we will assess the quality of digital designs for learning (Barab & Squire, 2004) using established qualitative data collection to analyze game play and player reaction over a three week period of time.

Groundskeeper: Groundskeeper is a product developed for helping players develop skills to increase focus and attention. The game is played on small Sifteo Cubes that have sensors that react to you and each other. There are new games that might help children with ADHD and Autism learn to better focus and keep attention on a task.

Baseline Measures
   Play Groundskeeper 
Overall Participants Analyzed 
[Units: Participants]
[Units: Years]
Median (Full Range)
 (5 to 11) 
[Units: Participants]
Count of Participants
<=18 years      21 100.0% 
Between 18 and 65 years      0   0.0% 
>=65 years      0   0.0% 
Sex: Female, Male 
[Units: Participants]
Count of Participants
Female      2   9.5% 
Male      19  90.5% 
Region of Enrollment 
[Units: Participants]
United States   21 

  Outcome Measures

1.  Primary:   Number of Participants With an Increase/Improvement in Focusing   [ Time Frame: 3 weeks ]

2.  Secondary:   Pre Interview With Participants to Qualitatively Identify Interest and Motivation   [ Time Frame: Day 1 ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.  

3.  Other Pre-specified:   Pre Interview With Teachers to Qualitatively Identify Themes of Motivation and Interest   [ Time Frame: Day 1 ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.  

4.  Other Pre-specified:   Post Interview With Participants to Qualitatively Identify Themes of Interest and Quality of Life Effects   [ Time Frame: Day 21 ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.  

5.  Other Pre-specified:   Post Interview With Teachers to Qualitatively Assess Interest in Using the Game With Students and Any Improvements to be Made   [ Time Frame: Day 21 ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.  

  Serious Adverse Events

  Other Adverse Events

  Limitations and Caveats

Limitations of the study, such as early termination leading to small numbers of participants analyzed and technical problems with measurement leading to unreliable or uninterpretable data
Technical difficulties resulting from firewall at school affected set up time, difficulty with log in instructions and the cubes sliding on desktops.

  More Information

Certain Agreements:  
Principal Investigators are NOT employed by the organization sponsoring the study.
There is NOT an agreement between Principal Investigators and the Sponsor (or its agents) that restricts the PI's rights to discuss or publish trial results after the trial is completed.

Results Point of Contact:  
Name/Title: Chief Medical Officer
Organization: CogCubed
phone: 612-250-9737

Trilling, Bernie, & Fadel, Charles. (2009). 21 Century Skills: Learning for Life in our Times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Steinkuehler, C., & Duncan, S. (2008). Scientific Habits of Mind in Virtual Worlds. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17(6), 530-543. doi: Doi 10.1007/S10956-008-9120-8
Squire, K., & Dikkers, S. (2012). Amplifications of learning: Use of mobile media devices among youth. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, OnlineFirst. doi:10.1177/1354856511429646.
Squire, K., & Barab, S. (2004). Replaying history: Engaging urban undeserved students in learning world history. Paper presented at the 6th international conference on Learning sciences, Los Angeles, CA.
Gee, J. P. (2007). What Video Games have to Teach us about Learning and Literacy. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Barab, S. and K. Squire (2004).
Laurel, B., Ed. (2003). Design Research: Methods and Perspectives. Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.

Responsible Party: CogCubed, Corp Identifier: NCT01808066     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 12X226
12X226 ( Other Identifier: Ohio University IRB )
First Submitted: March 6, 2013
First Posted: March 11, 2013
Results First Submitted: July 23, 2014
Results First Posted: September 9, 2014
Last Update Posted: February 23, 2018