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Good Schools Study (GSS)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01678846
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 5, 2012
Results First Posted : January 26, 2016
Last Update Posted : January 26, 2016
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Raising Voices
Institute of Education, UK
Makerere University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Study Type Interventional
Study Design Allocation: Randomized;   Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment;   Masking: None (Open Label);   Primary Purpose: Prevention
Conditions Physical Violence
Educational Achievement
Mental Health
Sexual Violence
Violence Against Children
Intervention Behavioral: Good School Toolkit
Enrollment 3820
Recruitment Details Cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys were conducted in 42 schools in June/July 2012 and June/July 2014. A simple random sample of up to 130 P5, 6 and 7 students were invited for individual interviews. If there were fewer than 130 P5-7 students in a school, all were invited for interview.
Pre-assignment Details  
Arm/Group Title Good School Toolkit Control
Hide Arm/Group Description

Schools in the intervention arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and implementation support.

Good School Toolkit: The Toolkit uses a six step process to create a school wide intervention that engages teachers, students, administration, and parents to reflect on how they can promote quality of education in their school. The Toolkit articulates complex ideas (what is a good learning environment, a good teacher, how to create positive discipline without using violence) through booklets, posters and school initiated learning processes. Specific modules on alternative discipline techniques and how staff can use positive discipline are included in the Toolkit. The intervention includes sessions on knowledge, attitudes and opportunities to practice new behavioural skills. Work is led by teachers and students, and supported by visits from Raising Voices staff. The Toolkit can be reviewed at (http://www.raisingvoices.org/children/good_school_toolkit.php).

Schools in this arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and some implementation support after the end of the trial.
Period Title: Overall Study
Started 1921 [1] 1899
Completed 1921 1899
Not Completed 0 0
[1]
Whole school implementation. Started and completed shows number of students in the end-line survey.
Arm/Group Title Good School Toolkit Control Total
Hide Arm/Group Description

Schools in the intervention arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and implementation support.

Good School Toolkit: The Toolkit uses a six step process to create a school wide intervention that engages teachers, students, administration, and parents to reflect on how they can promote quality of education in their school. The Toolkit articulates complex ideas (what is a good learning environment, a good teacher, how to create positive discipline without using violence) through booklets, posters and school initiated learning processes. Specific modules on alternative discipline techniques and how staff can use positive discipline are included in the Toolkit. The intervention includes sessions on knowledge, attitudes and opportunities to practice new behavioural skills. Work is led by teachers and students, and supported by visits from Raising Voices staff. The Toolkit can be reviewed at (http://www.raisingvoices.org/children/good_school_toolkit.php).

Schools in this arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and some implementation support after the end of the trial. Total of all reporting groups
Overall Number of Baseline Participants 1824 1882 3706
Hide Baseline Analysis Population Description
The baseline survey total participants is shown here (whereas the number in the participant flow is the number of participants at endline, in both the "started and "completed")
Age, Continuous  
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of measure:  Years
Number Analyzed 1824 participants 1882 participants 3706 participants
13.1  (1.5) 13.0  (1.5) 13.0  (1.5)
Sex: Female, Male  
Measure Type: Count of Participants
Unit of measure:  Participants
Number Analyzed 1824 participants 1882 participants 3706 participants
Female
927
  50.8%
1010
  53.7%
1937
  52.3%
Male
897
  49.2%
872
  46.3%
1769
  47.7%
1.Primary Outcome
Title Physical Violence From School Staff
Hide Description past week experience of any physical violence from school staff
Time Frame 2-year follow-up
Show Outcome Measure DataHide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Good School Toolkit Control
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Schools in the intervention arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and implementation support.

Good School Toolkit: The Toolkit uses a six step process to create a school wide intervention that engages teachers, students, administration, and parents to reflect on how they can promote quality of education in their school. The Toolkit articulates complex ideas (what is a good learning environment, a good teacher, how to create positive discipline without using violence) through booklets, posters and school initiated learning processes. Specific modules on alternative discipline techniques and how staff can use positive discipline are included in the Toolkit. The intervention includes sessions on knowledge, attitudes and opportunities to practice new behavioural skills. Work is led by teachers and students, and supported by visits from Raising Voices staff. The Toolkit can be reviewed at (http://www.raisingvoices.org/children/good_school_toolkit.php).

Schools in this arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and some implementation support after the end of the trial.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 1921 1899
Measure Type: Number
Unit of Measure: participants
595 924
Show Statistical Analysis 1 Hide Statistical Analysis 1
Statistical Analysis Overview Comparison Group Selection Good School Toolkit, Control
Comments Does the Toolkit intervention reduce physical violence from school staff to Ugandan primary school students.
Type of Statistical Test Superiority or Other
Comments [Not Specified]
Statistical Test of Hypothesis P-Value <0.0001
Comments [Not Specified]
Method Regression, Logistic
Comments [Not Specified]
Method of Estimation Estimation Parameter Odds Ratio (OR)
Estimated Value 0.40
Confidence Interval (2-Sided) 95%
0.26 to 0.64
Estimation Comments An odds ratio of less than 1 would demonstrate a protective effect of the intervention. Unadjusted odds ratio presented, accounting for correlation between students within schools.
2.Secondary Outcome
Title Child Mental Health
Hide Description score on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): 20 questions. Total difficulties score, divided by the number of completed items. Modelled as a continuous variable. Range 0 (no difficulties) to 2 (high difficulties).
Time Frame 2-year follow-up
Show Outcome Measure DataHide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Good School Toolkit Control
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Schools in the intervention arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and implementation support.

Good School Toolkit: The Toolkit uses a six step process to create a school wide intervention that engages teachers, students, administration, and parents to reflect on how they can promote quality of education in their school. The Toolkit articulates complex ideas (what is a good learning environment, a good teacher, how to create positive discipline without using violence) through booklets, posters and school initiated learning processes. Specific modules on alternative discipline techniques and how staff can use positive discipline are included in the Toolkit. The intervention includes sessions on knowledge, attitudes and opportunities to practice new behavioural skills. Work is led by teachers and students, and supported by visits from Raising Voices staff. The Toolkit can be reviewed at (http://www.raisingvoices.org/children/good_school_toolkit.php).

Schools in this arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and some implementation support after the end of the trial.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 1921 1899
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
0.44  (0.26) 0.44  (0.26)
3.Secondary Outcome
Title Educational Achievement: Word Recognition in English
Hide Description Word recognition in English(words per minute). Early Grade Reading Assessment, Uganda version. Calculated as number of words read correctly (out of a maximum of 50), divided by the time (out of a maximum of 60 seconds).
Time Frame 2-year follow-up
Show Outcome Measure DataHide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Good School Toolkit Control
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Schools in the intervention arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and implementation support.

Good School Toolkit: The Toolkit uses a six step process to create a school wide intervention that engages teachers, students, administration, and parents to reflect on how they can promote quality of education in their school. The Toolkit articulates complex ideas (what is a good learning environment, a good teacher, how to create positive discipline without using violence) through booklets, posters and school initiated learning processes. Specific modules on alternative discipline techniques and how staff can use positive discipline are included in the Toolkit. The intervention includes sessions on knowledge, attitudes and opportunities to practice new behavioural skills. Work is led by teachers and students, and supported by visits from Raising Voices staff. The Toolkit can be reviewed at (http://www.raisingvoices.org/children/good_school_toolkit.php).

Schools in this arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and some implementation support after the end of the trial.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 1921 1899
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: words per minute
48.6  (27.7) 49.7  (27.7)
4.Secondary Outcome
Title Safety and Well-being at School
Hide Description

Five questions. Each question asked with response options: all the time, most of the time, sometimes, never:

I feel that my teachers care about me. I feel safe in school. I feel like I belong at school. I like to spend time at school. I am scared of my teachers (reverse coded). Scores summed, modelled as a continuous variable. Range 0 (low) to 15 (high). Higher score is better safety and well-being at school.

Time Frame At 2 year follow-up
Show Outcome Measure DataHide Outcome Measure Data
Hide Analysis Population Description
[Not Specified]
Arm/Group Title Good School Toolkit Control
Hide Arm/Group Description:

Schools in the intervention arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and implementation support.

Good School Toolkit: The Toolkit uses a six step process to create a school wide intervention that engages teachers, students, administration, and parents to reflect on how they can promote quality of education in their school. The Toolkit articulates complex ideas (what is a good learning environment, a good teacher, how to create positive discipline without using violence) through booklets, posters and school initiated learning processes. Specific modules on alternative discipline techniques and how staff can use positive discipline are included in the Toolkit. The intervention includes sessions on knowledge, attitudes and opportunities to practice new behavioural skills. Work is led by teachers and students, and supported by visits from Raising Voices staff. The Toolkit can be reviewed at (http://www.raisingvoices.org/children/good_school_toolkit.php).

Schools in this arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and some implementation support after the end of the trial.
Overall Number of Participants Analyzed 1921 1899
Mean (Standard Deviation)
Unit of Measure: units on a scale
11.7  (2.4) 11.1  (2.5)
Time Frame [Not Specified]
Adverse Event Reporting Description [Not Specified]
 
Arm/Group Title Good School Toolkit Control
Hide Arm/Group Description

Schools in the intervention arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and implementation support.

Good School Toolkit: The Toolkit uses a six step process to create a school wide intervention that engages teachers, students, administration, and parents to reflect on how they can promote quality of education in their school. The Toolkit articulates complex ideas (what is a good learning environment, a good teacher, how to create positive discipline without using violence) through booklets, posters and school initiated learning processes. Specific modules on alternative discipline techniques and how staff can use positive discipline are included in the Toolkit. The intervention includes sessions on knowledge, attitudes and opportunities to practice new behavioural skills. Work is led by teachers and students, and supported by visits from Raising Voices staff. The Toolkit can be reviewed at (http://www.raisingvoices.org/children/good_school_toolkit.php).

Schools in this arm will receive the Good Schools Toolkit materials and some implementation support after the end of the trial.
All-Cause Mortality
Good School Toolkit Control
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   --/--   --/-- 
Show Serious Adverse Events Hide Serious Adverse Events
Good School Toolkit Control
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/1921 (0.00%)   0/1899 (0.00%) 
Show Other (Not Including Serious) Adverse Events Hide Other (Not Including Serious) Adverse Events
Frequency Threshold for Reporting Other Adverse Events 0%
Good School Toolkit Control
Affected / at Risk (%) Affected / at Risk (%)
Total   0/1921 (0.00%)   0/1899 (0.00%) 
Certain Agreements
All Principal Investigators ARE employed by the organization sponsoring the study.
Results Point of Contact
Name/Title: Dr Karen Devries
Organization: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Phone: 0207958 8164 ext 8164
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01678846     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: LSHTM_6183
First Submitted: August 24, 2012
First Posted: September 5, 2012
Results First Submitted: October 8, 2015
Results First Posted: January 26, 2016
Last Update Posted: January 26, 2016