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Comparing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Prolonged Exposure (VRPE Extension)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
The Geneva Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Center for Telehealth and Technology
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01459705
First received: October 24, 2011
Last updated: November 9, 2015
Last verified: November 2015
Results First Received: October 9, 2015  
Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized;   Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study;   Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment;   Masking: Single Blind (Outcomes Assessor);   Primary Purpose: Treatment
Conditions: Stress Disorders
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Interventions: Behavioral: Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)
Behavioral: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)
Behavioral: Waitlist

  Participant Flow
  Hide Participant Flow

Recruitment Details
Key information relevant to the recruitment process for the overall study, such as dates of the recruitment period and locations
No text entered.

Pre-Assignment Details
Significant events and approaches for the overall study following participant enrollment, but prior to group assignment
No text entered.

Reporting Groups
  Description
Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)

The PE protocol is based on manualized procedures, which are derived from the theory that effective treatment for PTSD requires that the underlying pathological fear structure be activated and paired with new information that is incompatible with the fear structure. PE involves imaginal exposure and in vivo exposure as the two primary strategies to elicit repeated confrontation of feared but objectively safe thoughts, feelings, situations and events.

Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE): Prolonged exposure therapy will consist of 10 treatment sessions lasting 90 - 120 minutes each, with additional between-session homework assignments.

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)

The VRET protocol follows the same procedures as the PE protocol with the primary exception being that all instances of imaginal exposure will be augmented by immersion into Virtual Iraq environments, thus creating a situation known as immersive exposure.

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET): Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy will consist of 10 treatment sessions lasting 90 -120 minutes with additional between-session homework assignments.

Waitlist

The waitlist (WL) participants will be asked to refrain from psychotherapy during the 5 weeks of study participation.

Waitlist: This group will refrain from psychotherapy until after the completion of the 5 weeks of study participation


Participant Flow:   Overall Study
    Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)   Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)   Waitlist
STARTED   54   54   54 
COMPLETED   32   30   47 
NOT COMPLETED   22   24   7 



  Baseline Characteristics
  Hide Baseline Characteristics

Population Description
Explanation of how the number of participants for analysis was determined. Includes whether analysis was per protocol, intention to treat, or another method. Also provides relevant details such as imputation technique, as appropriate.
All participants randomized to a treatment arm included in baseline data analysis

Reporting Groups
  Description
Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)

The PE protocol is based on manualized procedures, which are derived from the theory that effective treatment for PTSD requires that the underlying pathological fear structure be activated and paired with new information that is incompatible with the fear structure. PE involves imaginal exposure and in vivo exposure as the two primary strategies to elicit repeated confrontation of feared but objectively safe thoughts, feelings, situations and events.

Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE): Prolonged exposure therapy will consist of 10 treatment sessions lasting 90 - 120 minutes each, with additional between-session homework assignments.

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)

The VRET protocol follows the same procedures as the PE protocol with the primary exception being that all instances of imaginal exposure will be augmented by immersion into Virtual Iraq environments, thus creating a situation known as immersive exposure.

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET): Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy will consist of 10 treatment sessions lasting 90 -120 minutes with additional between-session homework assignments.

Waitlist

The waitlist (WL) participants will be asked to refrain from psychotherapy during the 5 weeks of study participation.

Waitlist: This group will refrain from psychotherapy until after the completion of the 5 weeks of study participation

Total Total of all reporting groups

Baseline Measures
   Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)   Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET)   Waitlist   Total 
Overall Participants Analyzed 
[Units: Participants]
 54   54   54   162 
Age 
[Units: Participants]
       
<=18 years   0   0   0   0 
Between 18 and 65 years   54   54   54   162 
>=65 years   0   0   0   0 
Age 
[Units: Years]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 30.89  (7.09)   29.52  (6.47)   30.39  (6.45)   30.27  (6.66) 
Gender 
[Units: Participants]
       
Female   3   2   1   6 
Male   51   52   53   156 
Region of Enrollment 
[Units: Participants]
       
United States   54   54   54   162 


  Outcome Measures
  Show All Outcome Measures

1.  Primary:   Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit (Day 1) ]

2.  Primary:   Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]

3.  Primary:   Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]

4.  Primary:   Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)   [ Time Frame: 12 week follow up ]

5.  Primary:   Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)   [ Time Frame: 26 Week follow up ]

6.  Secondary:   PTSD Checklist- Civilian (PCL-C)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit (Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

7.  Secondary:   Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit (Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

8.  Secondary:   Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

9.  Secondary:   Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

10.  Secondary:   Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

11.  Secondary:   Suicide Risk Assessment   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

12.  Secondary:   Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

13.  Secondary:   Behavior and Sympton Identification Scale (BASIS-24)   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit(Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

14.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Screening Visit (Day 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

15.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 1 (week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

16.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 1(week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

17.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 1 (week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

18.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 1 (week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

19.  Secondary:   PTSD Checklist (PCL-C)   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

20.  Secondary:   PTSD Checklist (PCL-C)   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

21.  Secondary:   Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD)   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

22.  Secondary:   PTSD Checklist (PCL-C)   [ Time Frame: 12 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

23.  Secondary:   PTSD Checklist (PCL-C)   [ Time Frame: 26 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

24.  Secondary:   Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD)   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

25.  Secondary:   Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD)   [ Time Frame: 12 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

26.  Secondary:   Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD)   [ Time Frame: 26 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

27.  Secondary:   Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

28.  Secondary:   Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

29.  Secondary:   Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)   [ Time Frame: 12 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

30.  Secondary:   Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)   [ Time Frame: 26 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

31.  Secondary:   Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS)   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

32.  Secondary:   Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS)   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

33.  Secondary:   Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS)   [ Time Frame: 12 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

34.  Secondary:   Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS)   [ Time Frame: 26 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

35.  Secondary:   Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS)   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

36.  Secondary:   Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS)   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

37.  Secondary:   Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS)   [ Time Frame: 12 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

38.  Secondary:   Perceived Stigma Measure (PSS)   [ Time Frame: 26 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

39.  Secondary:   Suicide Risk Assessment   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

40.  Secondary:   Suicide Risk Assessment   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

41.  Secondary:   Suicide Risk Assessment   [ Time Frame: 12 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

42.  Secondary:   Suicide Risk Assessment   [ Time Frame: 26 Week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

43.  Secondary:   Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

44.  Secondary:   Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

45.  Secondary:   Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)   [ Time Frame: 12 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

46.  Secondary:   Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)   [ Time Frame: 26 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

47.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 2 (week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

48.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 3 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

49.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 4 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

50.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 5 (week 2.5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

51.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 6 (week 3) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

52.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 7 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

53.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 8 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

54.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 9 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

55.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 10 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

56.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: 5 weeks (or after treatment session 10) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

57.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

58.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: 12 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

59.  Secondary:   BASIS-24   [ Time Frame: 26 week follow up ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

60.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 2 (week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

61.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 3 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

62.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 4 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

63.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 5 (week 2.5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

64.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 6 (week 3) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

65.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 7 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

66.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 8 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

67.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 9 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

68.  Secondary:   Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs)   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 10 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

69.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 2 (week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

70.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 3 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

71.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 4 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

72.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 5 (week 2.5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

73.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 6 (week 3) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

74.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 7 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

75.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 8 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

76.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 9 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

77.  Secondary:   Side Effects Questionnaire   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 10 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   Yes

78.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 2 (week 1) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

79.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 3 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

80.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 4 (week 2) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

81.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 5 (week 2.5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

82.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 6 (week 3) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

83.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 7 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

84.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 8 (week 4) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

85.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 9 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

86.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: Treatment session 10 (week 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No

87.  Secondary:   Intent to Attend   [ Time Frame: 2.5 weeks (or after treatment session 5) ]
Results not yet reported.   Anticipated Reporting Date:   No text entered.   Safety Issue:   No


  Serious Adverse Events


  Other Adverse Events


  Limitations and Caveats
  Hide Limitations and Caveats

Limitations of the study, such as early termination leading to small numbers of participants analyzed and technical problems with measurement leading to unreliable or uninterpretable data
No text entered.


  More Information
  Hide More Information

Certain Agreements:  
Principal Investigators are NOT employed by the organization sponsoring the study.
There is NOT an agreement between Principal Investigators and the Sponsor (or its agents) that restricts the PI's rights to discuss or publish trial results after the trial is completed.


Results Point of Contact:  
Name/Title: Gregory A. Gahm, PhD
Organization: DCoE
phone: 253-320-5772
e-mail: gregory.a.gahm.civ@mail.mil


Publications of Results:

Other Publications:
Bryant RA. Cognitive behavior therapy of violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2000;5:79-97.
Foa EB,Steketee GS, Rothbaum BO. Behavioral/cognitive conceptualizations of post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavior Therapy. 1989;20:155-176.
Foa EB, Hearst-Ikeda D. Emotional Dissociation in Response to Trauma: An Information-Processing Approach. In: Michelson LK, Ray WJ, eds. Handbook of Dissociation: Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press; 1996:207-222.
Lating JM, Everly GS, Jr. Psychophysiological assessment of PTSD. In: Everly, GS, Jr., Lating LM, eds. Psychotraumatology: Key papers and core concepts in post-traumatic stress. New York: Plenum Press; 1995:129-145.
Boudewyns P, Hyer L. Physiological response to combat memories and preliminary treatment outcome in Vietnam veteran PTSD patients treated with direct therapeutic exposure. Behavior Therapy. 1990;21 (1):63-87.
Britt TW. The stigma of psychological problems in a work environment: Evidence from the screening of Service Members returning from Bosnia. J of Applied Psych. 2000;30(8):1599-1618
Foa EB, Riggs DS, Massie ED, Yarczower M. The impact of fear activation and anger on the efficacy of exposure treatment for PTSD. Behavior Therapy. 1995;26:487-499.
Rizzo AA, Buckwalter JG, van der Zaag C. Virtual Environment Applications for Neuropsychological Assessment and Rehabilitation. In: Stanney K, ed. Handbook of Virtual Environments. New York: L.A. Earlbaum; 2002:1027-1064.
Smith SG, Rothbaum BO, Hodges L. Treatment of fear of flying using virtual reality exposure therapy: A single case study. The Behavior Therapist. 1999;22(8):154-158,160.
Anderson P, Rothbaum BO, Hodges LF. Virtual reality exposure in the treatment of social anxiety: Two case reports. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2003;10:240-247.
Glantz K, Rizzo AA, Graap K. Virtual reality for psychotherapy: Current reality and future possibilities. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 2003;40(1/2):55-67.
Rizzo AA, Schultheis MT, Kerns K, Mateer C. Analysis of assets for virtual applications in neuropsychology. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 2004;14(1/2):207-239.
Rizzo AA, Rothbaum BO, Graap K. Virtual Reality Applications for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. In: Figley CR, Nash WP, eds. For Those Who Bore the Battle: Combat Stress Injury Theory, Research, and Management. New York: Taylor and Francis Books; 2006.
Rothbaum BO, Ruef AM, Litz BT, Han H, Hodges L. Virtual reality exposure therapy of combat-related PTSD: A case study using psychophysiological indicators of outcome. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2003;17(2):163-177.
Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 1988.
Cohen J, Cohen P. Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum; 1983.
Foa EB, Hembree E, Rothbaum BO. Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD: Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experiences. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.
Nishith P, Resick PA. Adherence and competence rating scales for prolonged exposure treatment: Unpublished Rating Scale, University of Missouri-St. Louis; 1994.
Ajzen I. From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In: Kuhl J, Beckman, J, eds. Action-Control: From Cognition to Behavior. Heidelberg: Springer; 1985:11-39.
Komiya N, Good GE, Sherrod NB. Emotional openness as a predictor of college students' attitudes toward seeking psychological help. J Counsel Psychol. 2000;47(1):138-143.
Kennedy RS, Lane NE, Berbaum KS, Lilienthal MG. Simulator Sickness Questionnaire: An enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness. International Journal of Aviation Psychology. 1993;3(3):203-220.


Responsible Party: National Center for Telehealth and Technology
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01459705     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 112226
W81XWH-11-2-0007 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: USMRMC )
Study First Received: October 24, 2011
Results First Received: October 9, 2015
Last Updated: November 9, 2015
Health Authority: United States: Federal Government
United States: Institutional Review Board