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SMS Turkey: Harnessing the Power of Text Messaging to Promote Smoking Cessation (SMS Turkey)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00912795
First Posted: June 3, 2009
Last Update Posted: October 5, 2016
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborators:
Hacettepe University
John E. Fogarty International Center (FIC)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Center for Innovative Public Health Research
Results First Submitted: March 29, 2016  
Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized;   Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment;   Masking: None (Open Label)
Condition: Smoking
Intervention: Behavioral: SMS Turkey

  Participant Flow
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Recruitment Details
Key information relevant to the recruitment process for the overall study, such as dates of the recruitment period and locations
Participants were recruited in Ankara, Turkey between December 2010 & June 2011, through in-person outreach at local shopping malls and local newspapers advertisements. Flyers were also posted at Hacettepe University. Smokers indicated their interest by calling the study office or speaking directly with the research assistant at the shopping mall.

Pre-Assignment Details
Significant events and approaches for the overall study following participant enrollment, but prior to group assignment
Of the 247 people who expressed interest in participating, 230 were eligible for the study. A total of 151 adults (66% of those eligible) attended the enrollment meeting, where they consented to take part in the research study and were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group.

Reporting Groups
  Description
SMS Turkey

6-week smoking cessation program delivered via daily text messages

SMS Turkey: 6-week smoking cessation program delivered via text messaging. SMS Turkey content is guided by the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) theory.

Content was tailored based on participant's stage in quitting (i.e., pre-quit, quit day, early-quit, late-quit, relapse). Based on the typical relapse trajectory, content paths were created for participants based on whether or not they were smoking 2 days after quit day; and again at 7 days after quit day.

Depending on the participant’s content path, the total number of messages received ranged from 91 (for those assigned to the encouragement arm) to 146 (for those who relapsed and then were assigned to the late quit messages).

Brochure Control

A 7-page brochure that provided general information and tips on how to quit smoking. Participants did not receive any text messages.

The brochure encouraged smokers to follow 5 steps to quitting : (1) set a quit day and sign a contract, (2) find out about their smoking patterns-why they smoke, (3) practice quitting and change their patterns, (4) involve their family and friends, and (5) learn to be a self-supporter.


Participant Flow:   Overall Study
    SMS Turkey   Brochure Control
STARTED   76   75 
COMPLETED   29   17 
NOT COMPLETED   47   58 



  Baseline Characteristics
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Population Description
Explanation of how the number of participants for analysis was determined. Includes whether analysis was per protocol, intention to treat, or another method. Also provides relevant details such as imputation technique, as appropriate.
No text entered.

Reporting Groups
  Description
SMS Turkey

6-week smoking cessation program delivered via daily text messages

SMS Turkey: 6-week smoking cessation program delivered via text messaging. SMS Turkey content is guided by the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) theory.

Content was tailored based on participant's stage in quitting (i.e., pre-quit, quit day, early-quit, late-quit, relapse). Based on the typical relapse trajectory, content paths were created for participants based on whether or not they were smoking 2 days after quit day; and again at 7 days after quit day.

Depending on the participant’s content path, the total number of messages received ranged from 91 (for those assigned to the encouragement arm) to 146 (for those who relapsed and then were assigned to the late quit messages).

Brochure Control

A 7-page brochure that provided general information and tips on how to quit smoking. Participants did not receive any text messages.

The brochure encouraged smokers to follow 5 steps to quitting : (1) set a quit day and sign a contract, (2) find out about their smoking patterns-why they smoke, (3) practice quitting and change their patterns, (4) involve their family and friends, and (5) learn to be a self-supporter.

Total Total of all reporting groups

Baseline Measures
   SMS Turkey   Brochure Control   Total 
Overall Participants Analyzed 
[Units: Participants]
 76   75   151 
Age 
[Units: Years]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 35.6  (10.3)   36.1  (9.5)   35.89  (9.89) 
Gender 
[Units: Participants]
     
Female   35   24   59 
Male   41   51   92 
Income 
[Units: Participants]
     
Less than 2000 Turkish lira per month   23   37   60 
2000 - 4000 Turkish lira per month   34   28   62 
More than 4000 Turkish lira per month   16   9   25 
Do not want to answer   3   1   4 
Martial status 
[Units: Participants]
     
Married   42   49   91 
Single   30   25   55 
Divorced   4   0   4 
Widowed   0   1   1 
Educational attainment 
[Units: Participants]
     
High school or less   28   38   66 
Two-year college   13   10   23 
University degree   27   23   50 
Post graduate degree   8   4   12 
Average Number of cigarettes smoked per day 
[Units: Number of cigarettes per day]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 18.7  (7.2)   20.4  (9.2)   19.53  (8.27) 
Age at first cigarette 
[Units: Years]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 17.5  (3.7)   17.1  (3.6)   17.3  (3.6) 
Fagerström score [1] 
[Units: Score]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 4.8  (2.3)   4.9  (2.5)   4.8  (2.4) 
[1] Tobacco dependence was assessed using the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Scores range from 0-10. A score of 0-2 indicates low dependence, 3-4 indicates low to moderate dependence, 5-7 indicates moderate dependence, and 8-10 indicates high dependence.
Importance of quitting to self [1] 
[Units: Score]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 8.9  (1.6)   9.0  (1.4)   8.9  (1.5) 
[1] This measure has scores possibly ranging form 4 to 10 with higher scores reflecting more importance
Confidence in one's ability to quit [1] 
[Units: Score]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 6.0  (2.4)   6.0  (2.5)   6.0  (2.5) 
[1] This measure has scores possibly ranging form 0 to 10 with higher scores reflecting more confidence
Number of quit attempts in the past year 
[Units: Number of quit attempts]
Mean (Standard Deviation)
 2.4  (1.5)   2.4  (1.5)   2.4  (1.5) 


  Outcome Measures
  Show All Outcome Measures

1.  Primary:   Carbon Monoxide-verified Continuous Abstinence at 12 Weeks   [ Time Frame: 12-weeks post-quit day ]

2.  Secondary:   CO-verified 7-day Point Prevalence Abstinence at 4 Weeks   [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]

3.  Secondary:   Self-reported 7-day Point Prevalence Abstinence at 12 Weeks   [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]

4.  Secondary:   Self-reported 30-day Point Prevalence Abstinence at 12 Weeks   [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]


  Serious Adverse Events


  Other Adverse Events


  Limitations and Caveats
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Limitations of the study, such as early termination leading to small numbers of participants analyzed and technical problems with measurement leading to unreliable or uninterpretable data
An imbalance favoring the intervention was detected after approximately 100 participants were enrolled. To ensure a 1:1 match, the procedure was modified so that the RA pulled a slip of paper from a hat that read either “SMS Turkey” or “brochure.”


  More Information
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Certain Agreements:  
All Principal Investigators ARE employed by the organization sponsoring the study.


Results Point of Contact:  
Name/Title: Dr. Michele Ybarra
Organization: Center for Innovative Public Health Research
phone: 877-302-6858 ext 1 – 801#
e-mail: michele@innovativepublichealth.org


Publications of Results:
Other Publications:

Responsible Party: Center for Innovative Public Health Research
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912795     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ISK-NIH-FIC7918
5R01TW007918 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: May 19, 2009
First Posted: June 3, 2009
Results First Submitted: March 29, 2016
Results First Posted: October 5, 2016
Last Update Posted: October 5, 2016