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Implementing School Wide PBS in Middle Schools: The Foundation for Effective Prevention

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04711681
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 15, 2021
Last Update Posted : January 15, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Oregon Research Institute
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Oregon

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE March 24, 2014
First Posted Date  ICMJE January 15, 2021
Last Update Posted Date January 15, 2021
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE August 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date March 24, 2015   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 12, 2021)
  • Antisocial behavior Depression Disruptive behavior Deviant peer association Student feelings of safety [ Time Frame: Four years ]
  • Peer to Peer Harassment [ Time Frame: Four Years ]
  • Direct observation of rates of problem behavior, teacher-student interactions in common areas and classrooms. Ratings of climate in randomly selected classrooms. [ Time Frame: Four Years ]
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History No Changes Posted
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 12, 2021)
  • Office Discipline Referrals [ Time Frame: Four Years ]
  • School demographics (size, racial makeup, academic achievement scores, attendance) [ Time Frame: Four years ]
  • Suspensions and expulsions [ Time Frame: Four years ]
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Implementing School Wide PBS in Middle Schools: The Foundation for Effective Prevention
Official Title  ICMJE Implementing School Wide PBS in Middle Schools: The Foundation for Effective Prevention
Brief Summary The research study will experimentally evaluate the impact of PBS on early adolescent development through a randomized control trial involving 36 middle schools. The impact of PBS on school staff discipline practices and student behavior will be evaluated. The study will examine whether the likely reductions in negative behavior in school are accompanied by reductions in peer harassment and victimization, peer rejection, deviant peer formation, and the development of antisocial behavior, substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and depression.
Detailed Description

The specific aims for the project are as follows:

  1. Evaluate the effects of the PBS intervention in a group-randomized trial in which middle schools are assigned to receive systematic training and consultation in the implementation of PBS or a one-day workshop on PBS (the control group).

    1. The PBS intervention group is expected to improve school behavior management practices compared to the control group.
    2. School climate is expected to improve in the PBS intervention group compared to the control group.
    3. Problem behaviors and deviant peer group formation are expected to decrease for students in the PBS intervention group compared to those in the control group.
    4. The development of problem behavior in later adolescence is expected to be lessened for the PBS intervention students compared to those in the control group.

    The effects of the intervention will be assessed through staff, student, and observer reports of discipline practices in schools. The investigators will assess changes in the frequency of in-school problem behaviors as measured by student reports, office discipline referrals, and out-of-school suspensions. Measures of student and teacher perception of the quality of school climate will include student reports of harassment and teacher reports of burnout. Formation of deviant peer groups will be assessed through student reports of their peer affiliation. Finally, adolescents' development of problems will be assessed over as many as five years through annual surveys of antisocial behavior, substance use, high risk sexual behavior, and depression.

  2. Assess the differential impact of intervention fidelity on targeted outcomes. No real-world implementation of a preventive intervention can be expected to be implemented with perfect fidelity in every school. The study will:

    1. Assess the degree of fidelity of implementation of all PBS intervention aspects.
    2. Examine the relationship of fidelity to changes in each of the targeted outcomes: discipline practices, in-school problem behavior, peer relations, deviant peer group formation, and adolescent problems.
    3. Provide further information about the specific facets of PBS associated with particular outcomes.
    4. To the extent that fidelity is related to outcome, above the simple relationship between condition assignment and outcome, it will strengthen the investigators confidence in the efficacy of PBS practices.
  3. Test a model of the influence of middle school discipline practices on the development of adolescent problems. The model, which is specified in Figure 1 and the following pages, posits that:

    1. Inadequate behavior management practices in middle schools contribute to aggressive and disruptive behavior among students in those schools.
    2. Schools with high levels of aggression and harassment make the formation of deviant peer groups more likely.
    3. Escalating aggressive behavior, harassment, and deviant peer group formation then contribute to the development of a range of problems in both school and non-school settings including antisocial behavior, substance use, depression, and high risk sexual behavior.

    The model will be tested using state of the art hierarchical linear modeling (e.g., Singer & Willett, 2003).

  4. Assess the maintenance of the PBS intervention after termination of training and technical assistance. It is unlikely that effective behavior management will be implemented and maintained, unless the school-as an organization-has adopted a system that is supported by all staff and used in every setting (Gottfredson, Gottfredson & Czeh, 2000; Sprague, Walker, Golly et al., 2001). Research is needed, however, on the extent to which the PBS system, once implemented is maintained. The present project will provide evidence about the degree to which PBS is maintained and identify the school characteristics that are associated with its maintenance.
  5. Assess the relationship of Office Discipline Referral data to adolescents' reports of their engagement in diverse problems. Office Discipline Referrals (ODR) have been widely used to evaluate PBS interventions. PBS typically produces substantial reductions in ODR's (e.g., Metzler, Biglan, et al. 2001; Taylor-Green et al., 1997; Sprague, Walker, Golly, White & Myers, 2001). However, little is known about the relationship between the ODR measure and other measures of adolescent problems (Irvin, Tobin, Sprague, Sugai, & Vincent, 2004). The proposed project will:

    1. Assess the validity of the ODR by examining both the concurrent and longitudinal relationships of the ODR with student self-report measures of problems.
    2. Examine the significance of reductions in ODR's for PBS intervention schools and students.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
This study aimed to experimentally evaluate the impact of school wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) on early adolescent development through a randomized control trial involving 35 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. The impact of two levels of SWPBIS training and technical assistance on school discipline practices and student behavior was evaluated.
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Condition  ICMJE
  • Substance Abuse
  • Mental Health
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Behavioral: Positive Behavior Supports in Middle Schools

    2-4 days SWPBS training for school team and 1-2 days for whole staff training (SW and Classroom Management). Use staff release days for whole staff training.

    Schedule up to four meetings with the PBS team

    1K/School is to fund part or whole day training meeting with PBS team Schedule whole staff training per school year staff release days Enhanced Intervention Family Support Universal -- parent education and invitation Selective -- Family Check up School Intervention ACT for teachers PBS Calendar Kernel Recipes (Treatment) Reminder Emails Brochures Weekly phone contact (Treatment)

  • Behavioral: Positive Behavior Supports in Middle Schools
    1 days PBS training for school team and informational presentation to whole staff Attend 2-3 PBS team meetings (coaching) Data-based feedback (limited)
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: PBS1
    This group will recieve an "enhanced" PBS intervention.
    Intervention: Behavioral: Positive Behavior Supports in Middle Schools
  • Active Comparator: PBS 2
    This group will receive "standard" PBS with fewer training and coaching sessions than PBS 1.
    Intervention: Behavioral: Positive Behavior Supports in Middle Schools
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 12, 2021)
13498
Original Actual Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE March 24, 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date March 24, 2015   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • All students and teachers in the school

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Any students or teachers who decline consent (passive or active)
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 11 Years to 15 Years   (Child)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT04711681
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE 1R01DA019037-01A1( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party University of Oregon
Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Oregon
Collaborators  ICMJE
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
  • Oregon Research Institute
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Jeffrey R Sprague, Ph.D. University of Oregon
Principal Investigator: Julie C Rusby, Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute
PRS Account University of Oregon
Verification Date January 2021

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP