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Expansion and Reevaluation of the Implicit Association Test in Suicide Ideators and Suicide Attempters (IAT-S)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04585802
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : October 14, 2020
Last Update Posted : October 14, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
University Hospital of Psychiatry, Department Neuropsychopharmacology and Brain Imaging
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Bern

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date September 23, 2020
First Posted Date October 14, 2020
Last Update Posted Date October 14, 2020
Actual Study Start Date May 27, 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date May 2022   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: October 12, 2020)
Implicit Association Test (IAT) [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
D-Score of the four IAT versions.
Original Primary Outcome Measures Same as current
Change History No Changes Posted
Current Secondary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: October 12, 2020)
  • Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire - Revised [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
    The Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire measures suicidal behavior in the past and consists of four items. Item scores range from 3 to 18 with higher scores indicating more suicidal behavior (Osman et al., 2001).
  • Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
    The Beck-Scale for Suicide Ideation measures suicidal thinking and consists of 21 items. Item scores range from 0 to 42 with higher scores indicating more suicidal ideation (Beck & Steer, 1993; Kliem & Brähler, 2016).
  • Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
    The Beck Depression Inventory measures the severity of depression and consists of 21 items. Item scores range from 0 to 63 with higher scores indicating a higher intensity of depression (Beck, Steer & Brown, 1996).
  • Mee-Bunney Psychological Pain Assessment Scale (MBPPAS) [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
    The Mee-Bunney Psychological Pain Assessment Scale measures psychological pain and consists of 10 items. Item scores range from 10 to 50 with higher scores indicating more psychological pain (Mee et al., 2011).
  • Positive Mental Health Scale (PMH-scale) [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
    Positive Mental Health Scale measures positive mental health ans consists of 9 items. Item scores range from 9 to 36 with higher scores indicating more positive mental health (Lukat, Margraf, Lutz, van der Veld & Becker, 2016).
  • Internal External Locus of Control-4 (IE-4) [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
    The IE-4 is a Scale for the Assessment of Locus of Control and consists of two subscales with two items each. For each subscale, the mean value of the two items is calculated, which can range from 1 to 5 with higher scores indication more internal/external locus of control (Kemper, Beierlein, Kovaleva, & Rammstedt, 2012).
  • Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) [ Time Frame: One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given ]
    The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview is a brief structured diagnostic interview to assess the most common psychiatric disorders (Sheehan et al., 1998).
Original Secondary Outcome Measures Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title Expansion and Reevaluation of the Implicit Association Test in Suicide Ideators and Suicide Attempters
Official Title Expansion and Reevaluation of the Implicit Association Test in Suicide Ideators and Suicide Attempters
Brief Summary

A new approach to investigate suicidal processes belongs to the broader neurocognitive picture and are so-called implicit associations. In dual process models of information processing a second functioning mode, the automatic processing mode, complements the conscious processing. Suicidal persons tend to have a stronger implicit association with "death" than non-suicidal persons. In this study, implicit associations between different unconscious cognitive constructs are compared among suicidal and non-suicidal patients. Therefore, an adapted version of the computer-based reaction time task (IAT-S) will be used.

Four different versions of IATs are tested in this study. In the first version the implicit association between "self / others" and "death / life" is assessed (1). The second and third version measures the emotional evaluation of "death" (2) and "life" (3). In addition, in the fourth version the implicit association between death / life and internal / external locus of control is assessed (4).

The implicit associations of these four IAT-S versions are compared between three groups: patients with suicidal behavior, patients with suicidal ideation, and a clinical group without previous suicide attempts and without suicidal ideation.

The following hypotheses are made: in all four versions of the IAT-S, patients with previous suicidal behavior will have stronger implicit associations: between "self" and "death" as well as "death" and "internal locus of control" compared to all other groups. With a more "positive" evaluation of "death" and a more "negative" evaluation of "life" than all other participants.

Detailed Description

In this study, four versions of the suicide-specific implicit association tests (IAT-S) are carried out. Previous studies have shown that suicidal persons have stronger associations between the constructs "self" and "death". Furthermore, the strength of these implicit associations increases the risk of suicidal behavior in the follow-up period of six months by a factor of six. In these previous studies, the implicit "self-death association" (the so-called death-identity bias) was investigated. This study will additionally examine an implicit emotional evaluation (death-evaluation-bias). Therefore, two new versions of the IAT-S, which measure how death vs. life are emotionally evaluated, are being tested. In addition, a fourth version of the IAT-S was added and aims to clarify the implicit association between death / life and internal / external locus of control. Previous studies have shown that an internal locus of control is a protective factor and an external locus of control a risk factor for suicide attempts. In the present study, these four IAT-S versions are carried out with different groups of patients: patients with a suicide attempt (1), patients with suicide ideation (2) and patients with neither a suicide attempt nor suicide ideation (3). This cross sectional design allows us to test for group differences in regard to unconscious implicit associations. Hypothesis are described separately for each version of the IAT-S.

Death association: patients in group 1 will have a higher implicit association between self and death than patients in group 2 and that patients in group 2 have a significantly higher implicit association between self and death than patients in group 3.

Death evaluation: patients in group 1 will have more "positive" evaluations of "death" than patients in group 2 and patients in group 2 have a more "positive" evaluations of death than patients in group 3.

Locus of control: patients in group 1 will have a stronger association between internal locus of control and death (a) and external locus of control and life (b) than patients in group 2, and that patients in group 2 have a significantly stronger association between internal locus of control and death (a) and external locus of control and life (b) than patients in group 3.

Study Type Observational
Study Design Observational Model: Case-Control
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Target Follow-Up Duration Not Provided
Biospecimen Not Provided
Sampling Method Probability Sample
Study Population Patients from the University Hospital of Psychiatry
Condition
  • Suicidal Ideation
  • Suicide Attempt
Intervention Not Provided
Study Groups/Cohorts
  • Suicide Attempters (1)
    patients with a suicide attempt
  • Suicide Ideators (2)
    patients with suicidal ideation
  • Control Group (3)
    patients without suicide attempt and without suicide ideation
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status Recruiting
Estimated Enrollment
 (submitted: October 12, 2020)
276
Original Estimated Enrollment Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date May 2022
Estimated Primary Completion Date May 2022   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18-65 years
  • Ability and willingness to participate in the study
  • Ability to give consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Foreign language
  • Diagnostic criteria: Psychoses, strong cognitive impairments (e.g. dementia)
Sex/Gender
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages 18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers Not Provided
Contacts
Contact: Anja C. Gysin-Maillart, Ph.D. 031 632 88 11 ext +41 anja.gysin@upd.unibe.ch
Listed Location Countries Switzerland
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number NCT04585802
Other Study ID Numbers 2019-01410
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement
Plan to Share IPD: No
Responsible Party University of Bern
Study Sponsor University of Bern
Collaborators University Hospital of Psychiatry, Department Neuropsychopharmacology and Brain Imaging
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Anja C. Gysin-Maillart, Ph.D. University of Bern
Principal Investigator: Anja Gysin, Ph.D. University of Bern
PRS Account University of Bern
Verification Date October 2020