Quality of Life and Physical Performance After Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19);
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04375709|
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified April 2020 by Kantonsspital Winterthur KSW.
Recruitment status was: Recruiting
First Posted : May 5, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 12, 2020
|First Submitted Date||May 4, 2020|
|First Posted Date||May 5, 2020|
|Last Update Posted Date||May 12, 2020|
|Actual Study Start Date||March 15, 2020|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date||June 30, 2021 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures
|Original Primary Outcome Measures
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures
|Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Brief Title||Quality of Life and Physical Performance After Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19);|
|Official Title||Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and Physical Performance in Individuals After COVID-19 Induced Hospitalisation and the Impact of a Standard Care Follow-up Program: a Longitudinal Observational Cohort Study|
This study aims to observe the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and physical performance in individuals hospitalized due to a COVID-19 infection. Therefore, data is extracted from a study-site standard aftercare program which has been adjusted for this patient population. This comprehensive aftercare program includes education sessions and physical exercise. A second aim is to observe adherence and feasibility to the program and if indicated compare the clinical data and outcomes from patients following the program with patients denying to participate in guided exercise and education sessions.
It is expected that patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection show a reduction in physical performance and HRQOL directly after discharge. The severity of illness is hypothesized to be associated with a reduction as well in HRQOL and physical performance after one-year post-discharge.
Currently, the U.S. National Library of Medicine (April 2nd) reports 282 studies registered investigating the COVID-19 infection. According to the present knowledge the COVID-19, also known as novel type Coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2), belongs to a large family of viruses consist-ing of hundreds of variations and subtypes of this virus (World Health Organisation (WHO)/emergencies, April 2nd 2020). These types of virus' can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms ranging from a mild cold to pneumonia. The clinical manifestation of this novel type of Coronavirus - COVID-19 - was found to cause more severe pneumonia or severe acute respiratory syndrome such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). According to the data of Arabi and colleagues (2020) average age in Chinese affected individuals were 60, 40% had comorbid conditions, 42% required invasive mechanical ventilation and the mortality rate was at 62%. Epidemiological information from other countries is not yet published. According to the WHO in the Europe Region, 503730 cases and 33617 deaths were reported since January 25th 2020. In the 8,5 million populated countries of Switzerland, the number of confirmed cases raised to 23'574 and 756 deaths (Bundesamt für Gesundheit) Situationsbericht, April 9th). According to this report, the incidence of infection and hospitalization is highest in individuals aged 50 and older with a higher presence registered in men. Nevertheless, a certain number of affected individuals is between 20 and 50 years which is in accordance with the number presented from large studies in China (50.7%-55.1%). Among the 23'674 positive tested 2730 are currently hospitalized. Among these 280 individuals require mechanically assisted ventilation, meaning health care at an intensive care unit (status April 2nd).
In this acute situation of the pandemic, there is an enormous urge to finding a vaccine or medications to release or prevent severe symptoms and complications due to the new virus. Therefore, in the listed studies keen interest is on drug interventions to stop the expansion of this virus. However, knowledge on long-term consequences of physical condition and psychological state is unknown. Although, taking into account the clinical manifestation observed in the severe cases negative long-term consequences have to be expected as described in the following paragraph.
Up to date knowledge exist on the clinical manifestation which varies from asymptomatic to severe disease with approximately 80% of the cases found to present an asymptomatic carrier.
Thus, about 13.8% to 35% is suffering a severe course including dyspnoea, respiratory frequency ≥30/minute, desaturation of blood oxygen (≤93%) and or lung infiltrates >50% of the lung within 24-48 hours. Further signs of hospitalized individuals are fever, cough, myalgia, fatigue and sputum production. In literature, the clinical picture is described as bilateral pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome which leads to a severe organ failure of the lung. These patients require oxygen therapy with invasive (17%) or non-invasive (14%) mechanically assisted ventilation. And the higher probability of preloaded organ dysfunctions due to co-morbidities most often high blood pressure (13%), diabetes (4-6%) and COPD (1-5%) has to be taken into account.
According to the WHO report and Lai et al (2020) between 6.1% to 28%, respectively, were found to be in a critical stage. Acute respiratory failure, septic shock and/ or multiple organ failure defined this stage. According to a retrospective analysis from a large population in Wuhan, these patients require intensive care with most of them presenting (multi) organ failure with acute respiratory distress (ARDS, 67%), acute kidney injury (29%), cardiac injury (23%), and liver dysfunction (29%). These patients require invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate for critically ill COVID-19 patients varies from 1-4% to 4.3% according to large studies reported by Lai et al. (2020).
According to these statistics, about 4.3% of the 280 patients requiring intensive care in Switzerland (n=12) would not survive. Taking the current number of 2730 hospitalised patients reported above, these statistics result in about 2718 individuals surviving severe illness in Switzerland. A critical point is the high risk of the length of stay on the ward as explained in the following paragraph.
Patients in the severe and critical state are likely to suffer prolonged length of stay in the hospital according to Lia et al. (2020) and Wang et al. (2020) (±21 days). Studies on ARDS and critically ill patients led to strong evidence that prolonged length of stay, particularly with prolonged mechanical ventilation, leads to a significant negative impact on lung function, physical activity and emotional state. For example, from 109 patients suffered an ARDS (age interquartile from 35 to 57) the 5 years follow up showed a relevant reduction on physical condition (76% of the distance in the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT)) when compared to age and sex-matched norm values. Interestingly, these deficits were found despite normal to "near"-normal pulmonary function. A recent post-hoc analysis on 116 patients mechanically ventilated for at least >24h showed that a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and exposure to norepinephrine were associated with intensive-care-unit acquired weakness (ICU-AW; defined as <48/100 on the Medical Research Council Score). Hatch et al. (2018) for example found in their multicenter follow-up study, that 46% of the survivors of critical illness suffered from anxiety, 40% from depression and 22% from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the specific population of ARDS survivors (n=74) numbers are slightly lower ranging from moderate to severe depression in 16% and 23%, respectively and for anxiety 24% and 23% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. These findings on survivors of ARDS and critical illness underline the assumption that survivors of a COVID-19 induced hospitalized will suffer from physical and psychological long-term consequences.
In research on critical illness post-ICU, only moderate evidence and large risk of bias exist on the effect of follow-up rehabilitation post-ICU. However, some qualitative studies support the thought that patients might need additional care after discharge home. King et al. (2019) investigated in their scoping review of qualitative studies the needs of critical illness survivors and found that after discharge home patients had continuing information needs on understanding their critical illness and coping with the long-term sequelae and stress.
These qualitative findings were underlined and supported by quantitative studies investigating long-term effects in this population. In patients who suffered an acute respiratory failure greatest change in physical function was found two months after discharge. And in ICU survivors requiring one or more weeks of mechanical ventilation the degree of disability one week after ICU discharge was predictive for physical and mental recovery and mortality in the one-year follow up.
In contrast to the findings on critical illness aftercare programs were found having a positive impact in a population with pulmonary disease. In survivors of ARDS due to severe influenza, A pneumonitis an 8-week pulmonary rehabilitation program improved significantly exercise capacity and quality of life improved significantly. And in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the American Thoracic Society recommends respiratory rehabilitation early after discharge. Furthermore, according to the NICE guidelines "Rehabilitation after critical illness in adults" patients with rehabilitation needs should be seen two to three months after hospital discharge and should be reassessed to establish health and social care needs.
Additionally, based on an expert consensus following questions are still unanswered and considered as being relevant for the rehabilitation of these patients. Some examples are listed below:
Recent knowledge (published February 28 and 1st of April) from high impact journals give following solid time frames on viral shedding according to the traceability of Covid-19 RNA. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of virus RNA was used to measure the quantity of virus RNA in both studies.
Wölfel and colleagues isolated the virus daily from sputum, pharyngeal swabs, and stool since the first day of symptom onset. The samples were taken from individuals with mild to moderate symptoms (e.g. symptoms of lung affection). Maximal viral load was found before 5 days in these participants with the mild course being highest in stool and sputum. Based on their findings authors state that being 10 days beyond symptoms and less than 100,000 viral RNA copies per ml of sputum do have a little residual risk of infectivity, based on cell culture. Ling et al., isolated viral RNA from 66 participants post-Covid-19 infection as well from the stool, urine, and blood specimens during the convalescence. These samples were obtained from patients who survived a severe course of infection. The longest duration from onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs of convalescent patients was 22 days.
Zhou et al. (2020) studied as well the viral shedding with the daily analysis using PCR of Covid-19 throat swab specimens from 191 patients. For survivors, the duration of viral shedding showed an interquartile range of 17 to 22 days in patients with severe disease status (survivors). In summary, current knowledge shows the duration of viral traceability and thus the risk of infection from 10 to 22 days in patients with mild and severe illness, respectively. The average time to incubation found ranged from 5.2 to 12.5 days (Zhou et al., 2020) and average hospital duration ranged from 7 to 15 days in the 425 patients from Wuhan.
Therefore, subtracting lowest period of incubation (5 days) from the maximal duration of viral shedding (22 days) resulting in 17 days after first confirmed diagnose to be safe for hospital on-site testing. Based on this data and adding the criteria 4 days without specific COVID-19 symptoms (described in chapter 6.2.1), the committee developing the specific aftercare program - from which data will be taken for this study - considered as safe and feasible inviting patients post-acute hospital discharge when 14 days post diagnose and the mentioned four days (total ≥18 days).
In summary, there is a lack of knowledge on long term consequences of physical, emotional and quality of life outcomes. The similarity of clinical manifestation of the COVID-19 infection with ARDS or/and critical illness leads to the consideration of evidence found in this patient population. This evidence points out the high risk of long-term deficits on the above-mentioned outcomes and the relevance of patient-tailored rehabilitation programs.
Therefore, we consider it as essential to gather and analyse data on short and long-term quality of life and physical performance of patients after hospitalization due to COVID-19 infection.
|Study Design||Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Target Follow-Up Duration||Not Provided|
|Sampling Method||Non-Probability Sample|
|Study Population||Adult individuals after COVID-19 infection hospitalized at the Kantonsspital Winterthur (Switzerland)|
|Condition||Covid-19 (New Coronavirus) Infection|
|Study Groups/Cohorts||Not Provided|
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status||Unknown status|
|Original Estimated Enrollment||Same as current|
|Estimated Study Completion Date||August 31, 2021|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date||June 30, 2021 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Specific exclusion criteria for presence at the hospital (for evaluation and training); criteria will be verified during the phone-based screening process. After two weeks of a COVID-19 positive diagnosis and with four entire days the patient reports no signs of:
Also, treatment-based immunocompromised patients are excluded for on-site evaluation and training.
|Ages||18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers||No|
|Contacts||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Listed Location Countries||Switzerland|
|Removed Location Countries|
|Other Study ID Numbers||2020_00899 / COV19_2020|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||No|
|U.S. FDA-regulated Product||
|IPD Sharing Statement||
|Current Responsible Party||Kantonsspital Winterthur KSW|
|Original Responsible Party||Same as current|
|Current Study Sponsor||Kantonsspital Winterthur KSW|
|Original Study Sponsor||Same as current|
|PRS Account||Kantonsspital Winterthur KSW|
|Verification Date||April 2020|