Fibrinolytic Therapy to Treat ARDS in the Setting of COVID-19 Infection
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04357730|
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : April 22, 2020
Last Update Posted : May 10, 2021
|First Submitted Date ICMJE||April 18, 2020|
|First Posted Date ICMJE||April 22, 2020|
|Last Update Posted Date||May 10, 2021|
|Actual Study Start Date ICMJE||May 14, 2020|
|Actual Primary Completion Date||March 21, 2021 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
||PaO2/FiO2 improvement from pre-to-post intervention [ Time Frame: at 48 hours post randomization ]
Ideally, the PaO2/FiO2 will be measured with the patient in the same prone/supine position as in baseline, as change in positions may artificially reduce the improvement attributable to the study drug. However, given the pragmatic nature of the trial, the prone/supine position will be determined by the attending physician, in which case, we will use as an outcome the PaO2/FiO2 closest to the 48 hours obtained prior to the change in position as the outcome.
|Original Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Same as current|
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Brief Title ICMJE||Fibrinolytic Therapy to Treat ARDS in the Setting of COVID-19 Infection|
|Official Title ICMJE||Fibrinolytic Therapy to Treat ARDS in the Setting of COVID-19 Infection: A Phase 2a Clinical Trial|
The global pandemic COVID-19 has overwhelmed the medical capacity to accommodate a large surge of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the United States, the number of cases of COVID-19 ARDS is projected to exceed the number of available ventilators. Reports from China and Italy indicate that 22-64% of critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS will die. ARDS currently has no evidence-based treatments other than low tidal ventilation to limit mechanical stress on the lung and prone positioning. A new therapeutic approach capable of rapidly treating and attenuating ARDS secondary to COVID-19 is urgently needed.
The dominant pathologic feature of viral-induced ARDS is fibrin accumulation in the microvasculature and airspaces. Substantial preclinical work suggests antifibrinolytic therapy attenuates infection provoked ARDS. In 2001, a phase I trial 7 demonstrated the urokinase and streptokinase were effective in patients with terminal ARDS, markedly improving oxygen delivery and reducing an expected mortality in that specific patient cohort from 100% to 70%. A more contemporary approach to thrombolytic therapy is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) due to its higher efficacy of clot lysis with comparable bleeding risk 8. We therefore propose a phase IIa clinical trial with two intravenous (IV) tPA treatment arms and a control arm to test the efficacy and safety of IV tPA in improving respiratory function and oxygenation, and consequently, successful extubation, duration of mechanical ventilation and survival.
As the COVID-19 pandemic accelerates, cases have grown exponentially around the world. Other countries' experience suggests that 5-16% of COVID-19 in-patients will undergo prolonged intensive care with 50-70% needing mechanical ventilation(MV) threatening to overwhelm hospital capacity. ARDS has no effective treatment besides supportive care, the use of ventilation strategies encompassing low tidal volumes that limit trans-pulmonary pressures, and prone positioning in severe disease. Most current trials in clinicaltrials.gov for COVID-19-induced ARDS aim at modulating the inflammatory response or test anti-viral drugs. Sarilumab and tocilizumab that block IL-6 effects are being tested in RCT for patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 (NCT04317092, NCT04322773, NCT04327388). The World Health Organization international trial SOLIDARITY will test remdesivir; chloroquine + hydroxychloroquine; lopinavir + ritonavir; and lopinavir + ritonavir and interferon-beta (NCT04321616). Yet studies targeting the coagulation system, which is intrinsically intertwined with the inflammatory response are lacking.
A consistent finding in ARDS is the deposition of fibrin in the airspaces and lung parenchyma, along with fibrin-platelet microthrombi in the pulmonary vasculature, which contribute to the development of progressive respiratory dysfunction and right heart failure. Similar to pathologic findings of ARDS, microthrombi have now been observed in lung specimens from patients infected with COVID-19.
Inappropriate activation of the clotting system in ARDS results from enhanced activation and propagation of clot formation as well as suppression of fibrinolysis. Our group has shown that low fibrinolysis is associated with ARDS. Studies starting decades ago have demonstrated the systemic and local effects of dysfunctional coagulation in ARDS, specifically related to fibrin. This occurs largely because of excessive amounts of tissue factor that is produced by alveolar epithelial cells and activated alveolar macrophages, and high levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) produced and released by endothelial cells. Consistent with this, generalized derangements of the hemostatic system with prolongation of the prothrombin time, elevated D-dimer and fibrin degradation products have been reported in severely ill COVID-19 patients, particularly in non-survivors. These laboratory findings, in combination with the large clot burden seen in the pulmonary microvasculature, mirrors what is seen in human sepsis, experimental endotoxemia, and massive tissue trauma. Targeting the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems to improve the treatment of ARDS has been proposed for at least the past two decades. In particular, the use of plasminogen activators to limit ARDS progression and reduce ARDS-induced death has received strong support from animal models, and a phase 1 human clinical trial. In 2001, Hardaway and colleagues showed that administration of either urokinase or streptokinase to patients with terminal ARDS reduced the expected mortality from 100% to 70% with no adverse bleeding events. Importantly, the majority of patients who ultimately succumbed died from renal or hepatic failure, rather than pulmonary failure.
Consideration of therapies that are widely available but not recognized for this indication and traditionally considered "high-risk" such as fibrinolytic agents is warranted in this unprecedented public health emergency, since the risk of adverse events from tPA is far outweighed by the extremely high risk of death in the patient's meeting the eligibility criteria for this trial. While the prior studies by Hardaway et al evaluating fibrinolytic therapy for treatment of ARDS used urokinase and streptokinase, the more contemporary approach to thrombolytic therapy involves the use of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) due to higher efficacy of clot lysis with comparable bleeding risk to the other fibrinolytic agents.
|Study Type ICMJE||Interventional|
|Study Phase ICMJE||Phase 2|
|Study Design ICMJE||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Sequential Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
This is a Phase IIa clinical trial, open label, with a modified stepped-wedge design, testing systemic administration of fibrinolytic therapy with alteplase (tPA) versus standard of care for patients infected with COVID-19 resulting in severe respiratory failure. The design is a rapidly adaptive, pragmatic clinical trial, with 3 interim analyses and 1 final look at the data.Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Study Arms ICMJE||
|Publications *||Moore HB, Barrett CD, Moore EE, Jhunjhnuwala R, McIntyre RC, Moore PK, Wang J, Hajizadeh N, Talmor DS, Sauaia A, Yaffe MB. STudy of Alteplase for Respiratory failure in SARS-Cov2/COVID-19: Study Design of the Phase IIa STARS Trial. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2020 May 21. doi: 10.1002/rth2.12395. [Epub ahead of print]|
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status ICMJE||Active, not recruiting|
|Actual Enrollment ICMJE
|Original Estimated Enrollment ICMJE
|Estimated Study Completion Date ICMJE||November 2021|
|Actual Primary Completion Date||March 21, 2021 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Eligibility Criteria ICMJE||
Inclusion Criteria: We will include adult patients ages 18-75 years old with known or suspected COVID-19 infection with a PaO2/FiO2 ratio < 150 or inferred PaO2/FiO2 ratio from SpO2 if ABG is unavailable (Table) persisting for > 4 hours despite optimal mechanical ventilation management according to each institution's ventilation protocols, and a neurological exam without focal signs or new deficits at time of enrollment (if patient is on paralytics, patient has been aroused sufficiently to allow a neurological examination to exclude new focal deficits or has MRI/CT scan in the last 4.5 hours with no evidence of stroke. Finally, patients must be on the ventilator for <=10 days to be eligible. Based on experience with critically ill patients, longer ventilation time may be associated with increased risk of bleeding. Patients will be enrolled based on clinical features, without consideration of language (using hospital interpreters and translated consent), race/ethnicity, or gender. A neurological exam or CT/MRI scan to demonstrate no evidence of an acute stroke is needed due to a recent case-report of large-vessel stroke as a presenting feature of COVID-19 in young individuals.
|Ages ICMJE||18 Years to 75 Years (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers ICMJE||No|
|Contacts ICMJE||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Listed Location Countries ICMJE||United States|
|Removed Location Countries|
|NCT Number ICMJE||NCT04357730|
|Other Study ID Numbers ICMJE||20-0880|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||Yes|
|U.S. FDA-regulated Product||
|IPD Sharing Statement ICMJE||
|Responsible Party||Ernest E. Moore, MD, Denver Health and Hospital Authority|
|Study Sponsor ICMJE||Denver Health and Hospital Authority|
|PRS Account||Denver Health and Hospital Authority|
|Verification Date||May 2021|
ICMJE Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP