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Baby's First Years (BFY)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03593356
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : July 20, 2018
Last Update Posted : December 27, 2022
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Columbia University
University of Wisconsin, Madison
New York University
University of Maryland
University of Nebraska
University of Minnesota
University of New Orleans
University of Michigan
Duke University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of California, Irvine

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE May 29, 2018
First Posted Date  ICMJE July 20, 2018
Last Update Posted Date December 27, 2022
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE May 9, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date June 30, 2023   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 21, 2022)
  • Child Language Development: Vocabulary [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by Receptive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test (ROWPVT). Minimum raw value: 0; Maximum raw value: 111. Higher score indicates a better outcome. References: Martin, N. A., & Brownell, R. (2011). ROWPVT-4: Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test.
  • Child Language Development: Maternal Concern for Language Delay [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by the sum of the two questions listed below included in the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS):
    1. Do you have any concerns about how your child talks and makes speech sounds? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little)
    2. Do you have any concerns about how your child understands what you say? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little)".
    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 2. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.
  • Child Executive Function & Behavioral Regulation: Executive Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Executive Function measured by Minnesota Executive Function Scale. Minimum score: 60; Maximum score: 140. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Reference: Carlson, S.M. (2017). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Technical report. Carlson, S. M., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Test Manual. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc.
  • Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior/Problems [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Behavior/Problems measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 82. Higher score indicates a better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Achenbach, T. M., & Ruffle, T. M. (2000). The Child Behavior Checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies. Pediatrics in review, 21(8), 265-271.
  • Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior/Problems [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Behavior/Problems measured by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 82. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Reference: Achenbach, T. M., & Ruffle, T. M. (2000). The Child Behavior Checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies. Pediatrics in review, 21(8), 265-271.
  • Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Maternal Concern for Behavioral and Social-Emotional Problems [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by the sum of the two questions listed below, which are part of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS):
    1. Do you have any concerns about how your child behaves? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little)
    2. Do you have any concerns about how your child gets along with others? (0: No; 1: Yes or a little).
    Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 2. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.
  • Child Brain Function: Resting Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by high-density in-lab electroencephalography (see attached analysis plan for more details). Because of limitations in power expected with multiple testing adjustments, we are preregistering a single composite of mid-to-high-frequency whole-brain power summing across alpha, beta, and gamma bands, from 7 to 45 Hz. References: Tomalski, P., et al. (2013); Otero, G. A., et. al (2003); Marshall, P. J., et.al. (2004) Troller-Renfree, S. V., et. al. (2022). The impact of a poverty reduction intervention on infant brain activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(5).
  • Child Health, Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™). Minimum score: 3; Maximum score: 15. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Reference: Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.
  • Child Health, Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 3; Maximum score: 14. Higher score indicates a worse outcome. Reference: Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.
  • School Achievement and Behavior: School Test Scores for Target Child [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]
    Measured by administrative data of target child's test scores. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 9, 2018)
  • Child Language Development [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Receptive Language and Expressive Language Measured by Preschool Language Scale (may be replaced following pilot testing) The test aims to identify receptive and expressive language skills in the areas of attention, gesture, play, vocal development, social communication, vocabulary, concepts, language structure, integrative language, and emergent literacy. Scores for Auditory Comprehension, Expressive Communication, and Total Language. Raw scores are converted into standard scores and age percentiles. This interactive assessment continues until the child reaches the ceiling, takes 20-45 minutes, and has been validated in Spanish. References: Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (1992). PLS-3: Preschool language scale-3. Psychological Corporation. Restrepo, M. A., & Silverman, S. W. (2001). Validity of the Spanish Preschool Language Scale-3 for use with bilingual children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(4), 382-393.
  • Child Language Development [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Receptive Language and Expressive Language Measured by Preschool Language Scale (may be replaced following pilot testing) The test aims to identify receptive and expressive language skills in the areas of attention, gesture, play, vocal development, social communication, vocabulary, concepts, language structure, integrative language, and emergent literacy. Scores for Auditory Comprehension, Expressive Communication, and Total Language. Raw scores are converted into standard scores and age percentiles. This interactive assessment continues until the child reaches the ceiling, takes 20-45 minutes, and has been validated in Spanish. References: Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (1992). PLS-3: Preschool language scale-3. Psychological Corporation. Restrepo, M. A., & Silverman, S. W. (2001). Validity of the Spanish Preschool Language Scale-3 for use with bilingual children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10(4), 382-393.
  • Child Executive Function and Self-Regulation [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Child Executive Function Measured by Minnesota Executive Function Scale (may be replaced following pilot testing) Game-like app to measure executive function and early learning readiness in children. Score 0-100; higher score equal higher level of executive functioning. Reference: https://reflectionsciences.com/services/mefs/ The Preschool Self-Regulation Assessment is designed to assess self-regulation with a brief, structured battery of ten tasks. Reference: Smith-Donald, R., Raver, C. C., Hayes, T., & Richardson, B. (2007). Preliminary construct and concurrent validity of the Preschool Self-regulation Assessment (PSRA) for field-based research. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(2), 173-187. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child Socioemotional Development [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Social and Emotional Behaviors Measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) Reference: Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.
  • Child Socioemotional Development [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Social and Emotional Behaviors Measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) Reference: Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.
  • Child Socioemotional Development [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Social and Emotional Behaviors Measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) Reference: Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.
  • Child IQ [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    IQ Measured by Mullen Scales at Age 24 months Measured by WPPSI-IV at Age 36 months References: Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (pp. 58-64). Circle Pines, MN: AGS. Wechsler, D., Scales, P. I., & Index, V. C. (2012). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child IQ [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    IQ Measured by Mullen Scales at Age 24 months Measured by WPPSI-IV at Age 36 months References: Mullen, E. M. (1995). Mullen scales of early learning (pp. 58-64). Circle Pines, MN: AGS. Wechsler, D., Scales, P. I., & Index, V. C. (2012). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child Resting Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    EEG: resting high-frequency power Reference: Tomalski, P., Moore, D. G., Ribeiro, H., Axelsson, E. L., Murphy, E., Karmiloff-Smith, A., ... & Kushnerenko, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687.
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 21, 2022)
  • Child Language Development: Language Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Language Milestones measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)- Communication Subscale. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Squires, J., Bricker, D. D., & Twombly, E. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  • Child Language Development: Vocabulary [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Communicative Development measured by Short Form Versions of MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Language Development outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Fenson, L. (2000). Short-form versions of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 95 - 116.
  • Child Executive Function: Executive Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by the pencil tap test. This item was dropped on September 13, 2022, due to evidence of floor effects, and consistent reports from research staff that children were not understanding the instructions. Minimum value: 0; Maximum value: 16. Higher score indicates a better outcome. References: Diamond, A., & Taylor, C. (1996). Development of an aspect of executive control: development of the abilities to remember what I said and to "do as I say, not as I do". Developmental psychobiology, 29(4), 315-334.
  • Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Behavior [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Behavior measured by NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development Mother-Child Interaction Task (positive/negative mood, activity level, sustained attention, positive engagement). (Due to funding limitations, this was not feasible to code, and we have no immediate plans to do so). Reference: Griffin, J. A., et al. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health. Adapted script from mother-child-interaction at 15 months.
  • Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Problems [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Problems measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)- Problem Scale. Reference: Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., Irwin, J. R., Wachtel, K., & Cicchetti, D. V. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.
  • Child Socio-Emotional Processing: Problems [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Problems measured by Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). We will estimate the statistical significance of the family of related measures in the Child Socio-Emotional Processing outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Briggs-Gowan, et al. (2004). The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment: screening for social-emotional problems and delays in competence. Journal of pediatric psychology, 29(2), 143-155.
  • Child Pre-Literacy [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Pre-Literacy measured by The Reading House. Minimum value: 0; Maximum value: 14. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Reference: Hutton, et al. (2019). The Reading House: A Children's Book for Emergent Literacy Screening During Well-Child Visits. Pediatrics, 143 (6): e20183843. 10.1542/peds.2018-3843 Hutton et al. (2021). Validation of The Reading House and Association With Cortical Thickness. Pediatrics, 147(3), e20201641. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-1641
  • Child Intelligence Quotient [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability. Modified on September 30, 2022 to no longer measure child IQ, as described below. Minimum score: 10; Maximum score: 90. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Note: The IQ score is calculated using two subtests -- Matrices and Recognition -- and we began our fieldwork on July 9, 2022 with both. On the basis of preliminary analysis of the first 71 cases, we discovered that 21% of participants scored at the floor of the Recognition assessment. We therefore dropped the Recognition subtest from our data collection instrument on September 30 2022, precluding us from calculating IQ in subsequent participants. Scores on the Matrices subtest, which measures visual processing and abstract spatial perception (not IQ per se), are now registered as an age-4 secondary outcome. Reference: Wechsler, D., Naglieri, J. A. (2006). Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability. San Antonio, TX: Pearson.
  • Child Resting Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by EEG We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child Brain Function outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). References: Tomalski, P., Moore, D. G., Ribeiro, H., Axelsson, E. L., Murphy, E., Karmiloff-Smith, A., ... & Kushnerenko, E. (2013). Socioeconomic status and functional brain development-associations in early infancy. Developmental Science, 16(5), 676-687. Otero, G. A., Pliego-Rivero, F. B., Fernández, T., & Ricardo, J. E. E. G. (2003). EEG development in children with sociocultural disadvantages: a follow-up study. Clinical neurophysiology, 114(10), 1918-1925. Marshall, P. J., Fox, N. A., & Group, B. C. (2004). A comparison of the electroencephalogram between institutionalized and community children in Romania. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(8), 1327-1338.
  • Child Resting Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by EEG. We hypothesize greater frontal gamma power in the high-cash gift group, and plan to analyze a full model of regions nested within bands, with the plan to report all exploratory outcomes. See analysis plan. References: Tomalski, P., et al. (2013); Otero, G. A., et. al (2003); Marshall, P. J., et.al. (2004) Troller-Renfree, S. V., et. al. (2022). The impact of a poverty reduction intervention on infant brain activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 119(5).
  • Child Task-Related Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Auditory Discrimination Brain Function measured by mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP with larger differences between standard and deviant stimulus in high-cash gift group compared to the low-cash gift group. References: Cheour, M., Leppänen, P. H., & Kraus, N. (2000). Mismatch negativity (MMN) as a tool for investigating auditory discrimination and sensory memory in infants and children. Clinical neurophysiology, 111(1), 4-16. Garcia-Sierra, A., et al.. (2011). Bilingual language learning: An ERP study relating early brain responses to speech, language input, and later word production. Journal of Phonetics, 39(4), 546-557. Kuhl, P. K., et al.. (2005). Links between social and linguistic processing of speech in preschool children with autism: behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Developmental science, 8(1), F1-F12.
  • Child Health: Body Mass Index (BMI) [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by CDC BMI percentage scales. Reference: Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States.
  • Child Health, Physiological Stress [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by hair cortisol concentration. Note: Our original plan was to measure physiological stress using hair cortisol concentration. The first several months of data collection revealed large racial and ethnic differences in willingness to provide a hair sample, due to both cultural and practical reasons. Because of the large amounts of non-random missing data, which would both compromise our statistical power and limit the generalizability of any findings, we dropped hair cortisol from our data collection procedures on October 25, 2022. Reference: Ursache, A., Merz, E. C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., & Noble, K. G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.
  • Child Health, Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™) Minimum score: 4; Maximum score: 20. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Reference: Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.
  • Child Health, Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by an adapted Short Form of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS™) Minimum score: 4; Maximum score: 20. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Reference: Yu, L., Buysse, D. J., Germain, A., Moul, D. E., Stover, A., Dodds, N. E., ... & Pilkonis, P. A. (2012). Development of short forms from the PROMIS™ sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment item banks. Behavioral sleep medicine, 10(1), 6-24.
  • Child Health, Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items) Reference: Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.
  • Child Health, Overall Health, Medical Care, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by an index of six items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items) Reference: Halim, M. L., Yoshikawa, H., & Amodio, D. M. (2013). Cross-generational effects of discrimination among immigrant mothers: Perceived discrimination predicts child's healthcare visits for illness. Health Psychology, 32(2), 203.
  • Child Health, Overall Health, Diagnosis of Condition or Disability [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by an index of survey items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37
  • Child Epigenetic Pace of Aging [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document. Reference: Belsky, W. D. et al. (2020). Quantification of the pace of biological aging in humans through blood test, the DunedinPoAm DNA methylation algorithm. eLife 9:e54870. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.54870 Belsky, W. D. et al. (2022). DunedinPACE, a DNA methylation biomarker of the pace of aging. eLife 11:e73420. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.73420
  • Child DNA Methylation [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document. Reference: McCartney, D.L., Hillary, R.F., Conole, E.L.S. et al. Blood-based epigenome-wide analyses of cognitive abilities. Genome Biol 23, 26 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02596-5
  • Child Nutrition: Consumption of healthy foods [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by an index of survey items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: Los Angeles County WIC Survey. (2017). Retrievable from: http://lawicdata.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/WIC-Parents-Quex-English-FINAL.pdf
  • Child Nutrition: Consumption of unhealthy foods [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by an index of survey items (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: Los Angeles County WIC Survey. (2017). Retrievable from: http://lawicdata.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/WIC-Parents-Quex-English-FINAL.pdf
  • Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay: Total "predictive concerns" in the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by the total number of maternal-reported concerns that are "predictive of developmental delay" in the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 5. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.
  • Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay: Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by the total score across categories of components of the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), which includes 10 survey items. Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 10. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Any Maternal Concern for Developmental Delay outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Glascoe FP. Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status: A Method for Detecting and Addressing Developmental and Behavioral Problems in Children. Nashville, TN: Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press, 1997.
  • Diagnosis of Developmental Condition [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by one dichotomous survey item (see Appendix Table 7 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates a worse outcome. Reference: Study PIs
  • School Achievement and Behavior: School Test Scores for Target Child's Siblings [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]
    Measured by administrative data. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • School Achievement and Behavior: Student Behavioral Data for Target Child [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]
    Measured by administrative data. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • School Achievement and Behavior: Student Behavioral Data for Target Child's Siblings [ Time Frame: Starting at child age 6 years ]
    Measured by administrative data. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child School Achievement and Behavior outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: US Census Bureau
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: US Census Bureau
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 9. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: US Census Bureau
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf
  • Household Economic Hardship: Household Poverty Rate [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Household Poverty Rate measured using the Census Bureau's Poverty thresholds by Size of Family and Number of Children. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: US Census Bureau
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Index of Economic Stress measured by an additive index of nine items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 9. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Household Economic Hardship: Index of Food Insecurity [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Index of Food Insecurity measured by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Household Economic Hardship outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form retrieved from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/media/8282/short2012.pdf
  • Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by an additive index of 9 items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: study PIs
  • Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by an additive index of 9 items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: study PIs
  • Social Services Receipt; Number of Benefits Received by Mother [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by an additive index of 9 items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 5. Reference: study PIs
  • Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Time to Labor Market Re-entry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: study PIs
  • Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Time to Full-Time Labor Market Reentry from Birth measured by the number of months from child's birth until mother's full-time reentry into the labor market (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: study PIs
  • Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: study PIs
  • Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: study PIs
  • Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Education and Training Attainment [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: study PIs
  • Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation: Mother's Labor Market Participation [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Mother's Education and Training Attainment measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: study PIs
  • Maternal Earnings [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Mother's Earnings in the previous calendar year We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Mother's Labor Market and Education Participation outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures since birth [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Child-Focused Expenditures since birth measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Index of Expenditures in past 30 days [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Index of Expenditures in past 30 days measured by a dollar amount sum of responses to survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Cost of Paid Child Care [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Cost of Paid Child Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Child-Focused Expenditures: Use of Center-Based Care [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Use of Center-Based Care measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Child-Focused Expenditures outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Lugo-Gil, J., Yoshikawa, H. (2006). Assessing expenditures on children in low-income, ethnically diverse, and immigrant families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series, 06-36. National Study of Early Care and Education
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 6. Higher score indicates a better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Housing Quality [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Housing Quality measured by an additive index of survey items(see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Index of Housing Quality [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Housing Quality measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Excessive Residential Mobility [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Excessive Residential Mobility measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Homelessness [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Homelessness measured by survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Housing and Neighborhoods: Neighborhood Poverty [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Neighborhood Poverty measured by the proportion of residents in the respondent's census tract that are below the poverty line, using census data. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Housing and Neighborhoods outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Perceived Stress measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 32. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Family and Maternal Perceived Stress outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists.
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress: Parenting Stress [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Parenting Stress measured by the Aggravation in Parenting Scale. Note: Index dropped from age 4 survey owing to time constraints Reference: The Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, retrieved from https://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/cds/cdsi_usergd.pdf
  • Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires
  • Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires
  • Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Global Happiness [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Global Happiness measured by survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 1; Maximum score: 3. Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: The General Social Survey from NORC at the University of Chicago, retrieved from: http://gss.norc.org/Get-Documentation/questionnaires
  • Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.
  • Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.
  • Maternal Happiness and Optimism: Optimism [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Optimism measured by the HOPE Scale. Minimum score: 10; Maximum score: 30. Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Happiness and Optimism outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R., Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(4), 570-585.
  • Maternal Physiological Stress: Maternal Hair Cortisol [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by maternal hair cortisol. Reference: Ursache, A., Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.
  • Maternal Physiological Stress: Maternal Hair Cortisol [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by maternal hair cortisol. Note: Our original plan was to measure physiological stress using hair cortisol concentration. The first several months of data collection revealed large racial and ethnic differences in willingness to provide a hair sample, due to both cultural and practical reasons. Because of the large amounts of non-random missing data, which would both compromise our statistical power and limit the generalizability of any findings, we dropped hair cortisol from our data collection procedures on October 25, 2022. Reference: Ursache, A., Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic status, hair cortisol and internalizing symptoms in parents and children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150.
  • Maternal Mental Resources: Maternal Cognitive Resources [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured by the Minnesota Executive Function Scale. Minimum score: 60; Maximum score: 140. Higher score indicates a better outcome. Reference: Carlson, S. M., & Zelazo, P. D. (2014). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Test Manual. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc. Carlson, S. M. (2017). Minnesota Executive Function Scale: Technical Report, v. 2. St. Paul, MN: Reflection Sciences, Inc.
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Min value: 0; Max value: 24 Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Min value: 0; Max value: 24 Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Min value: 0; Max value: 24. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Depression [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Index of Maternal Depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). Min value: 0; Max value: 24. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kroenke, K. & Spitzer, R.L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515.
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Steer, R.A. & Beck, A.T., (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C.P. Zalaquett & R.J. Wood (Eds), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the GAD-7. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index 1 of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the GAD-7. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index 2 of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Min value: 0; Max value: 44. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Steer, R.A. & Beck, A.T., (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C.P. Zalaquett & R.J. Wood (Eds), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education
  • Maternal Mental Health: Index of Maternal Anxiety [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Index of Maternal Anxiety measured by the GAD-7. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Mental Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A Brief Measure for Assessing Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-1097. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092
  • Maternal Substance Abuse: Alcohol and Cigarette Use [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Alcohol and Cigarette Use measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Maternal Substance Abuse: Alcohol and Cigarette Use [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Alcohol and Cigarette Use measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 8. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Maternal Substance Abuse: Opioid Use [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Opioid Use measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Maternal Substance Abuse: Opioid Use [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Opioid Use measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 4. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Substance Abuse outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Chaos in the Home: Index of Chaos in the Home [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by the Home Environment Chaos Scale. Reference: Evans, G.W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L.A., Gentile, L, & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560-565.
  • Chaos in the Home: Index of Chaos in the Home [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by the Home Environment Chaos Scale. Reference: Evans, G.W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L.A., Gentile, L, & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560-565.
  • Maternal Relationships: Physical Abuse [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf
  • Maternal Relationships: Physical Abuse [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf
  • Maternal Relationships: Frequency of Arguing [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf
  • Maternal Relationships: Frequency of Arguing [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for item). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf
  • Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf
  • Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by a dichotomous indicator generated from an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items and cutoff point for high or low quality). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf
  • Maternal Relationships: Relationship Quality [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by a dichotomous indicator generated from an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items and cutoff point for high or low quality). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Relationships outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: User's Guide for the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study Public Data, Year 3. (2018). Retrieved from: https://fragilefamilies.princeton.edu/sites/fragilefamilies/files/year_3_guide.pdf
  • Maternal Physical Health: Global Health [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Global Health measured by one survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37.
  • Maternal Physical Health: Global Health [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Global Health measured by one survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome measured during the same wave cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Idler, E. L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997). Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of health and social behavior, 21-37.
  • Maternal Physical Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Sleep measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 4; Maximum score: 20. Higher score indicates a better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Maternal Physical Health: Sleep [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Sleep measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 3; Maximum score: 15. Higher score indicates a better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Maternal Physical Health outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Kling, J.R., Liebman, J.B., Katz, L.F. (2007). Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica, 75(1), 83-119.
  • Maternal Physical Health: Body Mass Index [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Body Mass Index measured by Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. Reference: Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States.
  • Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Adult Word Count [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Adult Word Count measured by LENA Processing Software. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.
  • Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Conversational Turns [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Conversational Turns measured by LENA Processing Software. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Xu, D., Yapanel, U., & Gray, S. (2009). Reliability of the LENA Language Environment Analysis System in young children's natural home environment. LENA Foundation.
  • Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Index of Mother's Positive Parenting Behaviors [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured using PICCOLO coding of parenting behaviors from the total of four sub-scales (affection, responsiveness, encouragement and teaching) with responses ranging from 0: absent, 1: barely, 2: clearly. Parent child interaction task and script adapted from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Parent-Child Interaction Quality outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Roggman, et al. (2013). Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) Of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290-306. Griffin, J. A., & Friedman, S. L. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health Belsky, J., et al. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care?. Child development, 78(2), 681-701.
  • Parent-Child Interaction Quality: Index of Mother's Positive Parenting Behaviors [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured using PICCOLO coding of parenting behaviors from the total of four sub-scales (affection, responsiveness, encouragement and teaching) with responses ranging from 0: absent, 1: barely, 2: clearly. Parent child interaction task and script adapted from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Reference: Roggman, et al. (2013). Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) Of Diverse Ethnic Groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290-306. Griffin, J. A., & Friedman, S. L. (2007). NICHD Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development. National Institute of Health Belsky, J., et al. (2007). Are there long-term effects of early child care?. Child development, 78(2), 681-701.
  • Maternal Epigenetic Pace of Aging [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document. Reference: Belsky, W. D. et al. (2020). Quantification of the pace of biological aging in humans through blood test, the DunedinPoAm DNA methylation algorithm. eLife 9:e54870. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.54870 Belsky, W. D. et al. (2022). DunedinPACE, a DNA methylation biomarker of the pace of aging. eLife 11:e73420. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.73420
  • Maternal DNA Methylation [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Measured using method reported in Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document. Reference: McCartney, D.L., Hillary, R.F., Conole, E.L.S. et al. Blood-based epigenome-wide analyses of cognitive abilities. Genome Biol 23, 26 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02596-5
  • Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.
  • Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.
  • Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Self-Report of Parent-Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 4; Maximum score: 20. Higher score indicates better outcome. Reference: Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.
  • Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Time on Mother-Focal Child Activities [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items where number of days spent doing activity is multiplied by the number of minutes reported doing activity per day (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Frequency of Parent-Child Activity outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Rodriguez, E. T., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at prekindergarten. Child development, 82(4), 1058-1075.
  • Frequency of Parent-Child Activity: Child Meal and Sleep Routine Index [ Time Frame: Age 48 months ]
    Frequency of Parent-Child Activity measured by an additive index of survey items (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0 Maximum score: 2. Higher score indicates better outcome. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in the Frequency of Parent-Child Activity outcome cluster measured during the same wave using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (see statistical analysis plan for more details; Westfall and Young, 1993). Reference: Study PIs
  • Maternal Discipline: Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.
  • Maternal Discipline; Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Reference: Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.
  • Maternal Discipline; Spanking Discipline Strategy [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Measured by a survey item (see Appendix Table 8 in "Analysis Plan and Measures" document for items). Minimum score: 0; Maximum score: 1. Higher score indicates worse outcome. Reference: Reichman, N.E., Teitler, J.O., Garfinkel, I., MclAnahan, S.S. (2001). Fragile Families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 9, 2018)
  • Child Memory Development [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Declarative Memory Measured by NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory (may be replaced following pilot testing) Reference: Loring, D. W., Bowden, S. C., Staikova, E., Bishop, J. A., Drane, D. L., & Goldstein, F. C. (2018). NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test for Assessing Clinical Memory Function: Diagnostic Relationship to the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology.
  • Child Language-Related Brain Function [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Brain Function to known vs. unknown words Measured by ERP (may be replaced following pilot testing) Reference: Zangl, R., & Mills, D. L. (2007). Increased Brain Activity to Infant-Directed Speech in 6-and 13-Month-Old Infants. Infancy, 11(1), 31-62.
  • Child Health [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Index of Mom's report of overall child health and ER visits Reference: Measures from MetroBaby: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood Reference: Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States.
  • Child Health [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Index of Mom's report of overall child health and ER visits Reference: Measures from MetroBaby: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood Reference: Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child Health [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Index of Mom's report of overall child health, ER visits, child BMI. Reference: Measures from MetroBaby: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood Body Mass Index (BMI) Measured by CDC scales; weight and height will be combined to report BMI in kg/m^2 Reference: Kuczmarski, R. J. (2000). CDC growth charts; United States. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures (child health, ER visits and BMI) in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child Developmental Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Developmental Milestones Measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) (may be replaced following pilot testing) Reference: Squires, J., & Bricker, D. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires, (ASQ-3). A parent-completed child monitoring system. 3rd ed. baltimore: MD: Brookes.
  • Child Developmental Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Developmental Milestones Measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) (may be replaced following pilot testing) Reference: Squires, J., & Bricker, D. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires, (ASQ-3). A parent-completed child monitoring system. 3rd ed. baltimore: MD: Brookes.
  • Child Developmental Milestones [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Developmental Milestones Measured by Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) (may be replaced following pilot testing) Reference: Squires, J., & Bricker, D. (2009). Ages & stages questionnaires, (ASQ-3). A parent-completed child monitoring system. 3rd ed. baltimore: MD: Brookes.
  • Household Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 months ]
    Index of Economic Stress: utility cutoffs, eviction, homelessness, missed payments, involuntary residential moves, untreated health conditions Index of Food Insufficiency: less than desired amount of food, type of food, skipped meals for children, for adults Measures taken from Moving To Opportunity intervention evaluation Reference: http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Household Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 months ]
    Index of Economic Stress: utility cutoffs, eviction, homelessness, missed payments, involuntary residential moves, untreated health conditions Index of Food Insufficiency: less than desired amount of food, type of food, skipped meals for children, for adults Measures taken from Moving To Opportunity intervention evaluation Reference: http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Household Economic Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 months ]
    Index of Economic Stress: utility cutoffs, eviction, homelessness, missed payments, involuntary residential moves, untreated health conditions Index of Food Insufficiency: less than desired amount of food, type of food, skipped meals for children, for adults Measures taken from Moving To Opportunity intervention evaluation Reference: http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Index of Chaos in the Home Measured by Home Environment Chaos Scale Reference: Evans, G. W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L. A., Gentile, L., & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological science, 16(7), 560-565. General Stress Index Measured by Perceived Stress Scale Reference: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists. Family Stress Index Measures taken from Fragile Families study Reference: Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2001). Fragile families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Index of Chaos in the Home Measured by Home Environment Chaos Scale Reference: Evans, G. W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L. A., Gentile, L., & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological science, 16(7), 560-565. General Stress Index Measured by Perceived Stress Scale Reference: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists. Family Stress Index Measures taken from Fragile Families study Reference: Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2001). Fragile families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Family and Maternal Perceived Stress [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Index of Chaos in the Home Measured by Home Environment Chaos Scale Reference: Evans, G. W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L. A., Gentile, L., & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological science, 16(7), 560-565. General Stress Index Measured by Perceived Stress Scale Reference: Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1994). Perceived stress scale. Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists. Family Stress Index Measures taken from Fragile Families study Reference: Reichman, N. E., Teitler, J. O., Garfinkel, I., & McLanahan, S. S. (2001). Fragile families: Sample and design. Children and Youth Services Review, 23(4-5), 303-326. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Physiological Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Maternal Physiological Stress Measured by maternal hair cortisol and maternal salivary cortisol at baseline, 30-min, and end of visit (may be changed) Reference: Ursache, A. Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., & Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic Status, Hair Cortisol and Internalizing Symptoms in Parents and Children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Physiological Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Maternal Physiological Stress Measured by maternal hair cortisol and maternal salivary cortisol at baseline, 30-min, and end of visit (may be changed) Reference: Ursache, A. Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., & Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic Status, Hair Cortisol and Internalizing Symptoms in Parents and Children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Physical Health [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Maternal Physical Health Questionnaire Measures from MetroBaby and MTO References: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Physical Health [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Maternal Physical Health Questionnaire Measures from MetroBaby and MTO References: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Physical Health [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Maternal Physical Health Questionnaire Measures from MetroBaby and MTO References: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ Maternal BMI (measured only at child age 36 lab visit): Measured by CDC scales; weight and height will be combined to report BMI in kg/m^2 We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Mental Health [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Index of Maternal Depression Measured by PHQ-9 Reference: Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515. Index of Maternal Anxiety Measured by Beck Anxiety Inventory Reference: Steer, R. A., & Beck, A. T. (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C. P. Zalaquett & R. J. Wood (Eds.), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Mental Health [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Index of Maternal Depression Measured by PHQ-9 Reference: Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515. Index of Maternal Anxiety Measured by Beck Anxiety Inventory Reference: Steer, R. A., & Beck, A. T. (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C. P. Zalaquett & R. J. Wood (Eds.), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993)..
  • Maternal Mental Health [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Index of Maternal Depression Measured by PHQ-9 Reference: Kroenke, K., & Spitzer, R. L. (2002). The PHQ-9: a new depression diagnostic and severity measure. Psychiatric annals, 32(9), 509-515. Index of Maternal Anxiety Measured by Beck Anxiety Inventory Reference: Steer, R. A., & Beck, A. T. (1997). Beck Anxiety Inventory. In C. P. Zalaquett & R. J. Wood (Eds.), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (pp. 23-40). Lanham, MD, US: Scarecrow Education. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Maternal Mental Resources [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Maternal Cognitive Bandwidth Measured by Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test (NIH Toolbox) Reference: Zelazo, P. D., Anderson, J. E., Richler, J., Wallner-Allen, K., Beaumont, J. L., & Weintraub, S. (2013). II. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): Measuring executive function and attention. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(4), 16-33.
  • Quality of Parent-Child Interaction and Environment [ Time Frame: 12 Months ]
    Quality of Parent-Child Interaction and Environment Infant/Toddler HOME Inventory (this measure may be changed later) Reference: Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (2003). Home inventory administration manual. Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Quantity of parent-child language (adult word count) Index of quality of parent-child language (e.g., conversational turns, mean length of utterance; some of these may be adjusted later) Reference: Matas, L., Arend, R. A., & Sroufe, L. A. (1978). Continuity of adaptation in the second year: The relationship between quality of attachment and later competence. Child development, 547-556. Index of mother-child activities Measures from MetroBaby Reference: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood We will estimate the statistical significance of thse measures using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Quality of Parent-Child Interaction and Environment [ Time Frame: 24 Months ]
    Quality of Parent-Child Interaction and Environment Infant/Toddler HOME Inventory (this measure may be changed later) Reference: Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (2003). Home inventory administration manual. Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Quantity of parent-child language (adult word count) Index of quality of parent-child language (e.g., conversational turns, mean length of utterance; some of these may be adjusted later) Reference: Matas, L., Arend, R. A., & Sroufe, L. A. (1978). Continuity of adaptation in the second year: The relationship between quality of attachment and later competence. Child development, 547-556. Index of mother-child activities Measures from MetroBaby Reference: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood We will estimate the statistical significance of thse measures using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child-Focused Expenditures [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Index of Child-focused expenditures (books, toys, media, clothes, diapers, healthcare, child care expenses) Measures from Metro Baby Reference: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood
  • Child-Focused Expenditures [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Index of Child-focused expenditures (books, toys, media, clothes, diapers, healthcare, child care expenses) Measures from Metro Baby Reference: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood
  • Child-Focused Expenditures [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Index of Child-focused expenditures (books, toys, media, clothes, diapers, healthcare, child care expenses) Measures from Metro Baby Reference: https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/crcde/projects/childhood
  • Housing and Neighborhood [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Housing and Neighborhood Index of perceptions of neighborhood safety: self-reported safety, victimization Housing quality index: crowding/number of rooms, housing quality problems Both indexes taken from Moving to Opportunity intervention evaluation Reference: http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ Neighborhood poverty: Neighborhood poverty in Census tract of residence Measured based on data from the American Community Survey We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Housing and Neighborhood [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Housing and Neighborhood Index of perceptions of neighborhood safety: self-reported safety, victimization Housing quality index: crowding/number of rooms, housing quality problems Both indexes taken from Moving to Opportunity intervention evaluation Reference: http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ Neighborhood poverty: Neighborhood poverty in Census tract of residence Measured based on data from the American Community Survey We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Housing and Neighborhood [ Time Frame: Age 36 Months ]
    Housing and Neighborhood Index of perceptions of neighborhood safety: self-reported safety, victimization Housing quality index: crowding/number of rooms, housing quality problems Both indexes taken from Moving to Opportunity intervention evaluation Reference: http://www.nber.org/mtopublic/ Neighborhood poverty: Neighborhood poverty in Census tract of residence Measured based on data from the American Community Survey We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child Physiological Stress [ Time Frame: Age 12 Months ]
    Child Physiological Stress measured by child hair cortisol and child salivary cortisol at baseline, 30-min, and end of visit (may be changed following pilot testing) References: Ursache, A. Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., & Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic Status, Hair Cortisol and Internalizing Symptoms in Parents and Children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150. Hanrahan, K., McCarthy, A. M., Kleiber, C., Lutgendorf, S., & Tsalikian, E. (2006). Strategies for salivary cortisol collection and analysis in research with children. Applied Nursing Research, 19(2), 95-101. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child Physiological Stress [ Time Frame: Age 24 Months ]
    Child Physiological Stress measured by child hair cortisol and child salivary cortisol at baseline, 30-min, and end of visit (may be changed following pilot testing) References: Ursache, A. Merz, E.C., Melvin, S., Meyer, J., & Noble, K.G. (2017). Socioeconomic Status, Hair Cortisol and Internalizing Symptoms in Parents and Children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 142-150. Hanrahan, K., McCarthy, A. M., Kleiber, C., Lutgendorf, S., & Tsalikian, E. (2006). Strategies for salivary cortisol collection and analysis in research with children. Applied Nursing Research, 19(2), 95-101. We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
  • Child School Achievement and Behavior [ Time Frame: Age: School-age starting at age 6 ]
    School Academic and Behavioral Assessments for target children and siblings Measured by School Administrative Data We will estimate the statistical significance of the entire family of related measures in this outcome cluster using step-down resampling methods for multiple testing (Westfall and Young, 1993).
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Baby's First Years
Official Title  ICMJE Household Income and Child Development in the First Three Years of Life
Brief Summary Recent advances in developmental neuroscience suggest that experiences early in life have profound and enduring influences on the developing brain. Family economic resources shape the nature of many of these experiences, yet the extent to which they affect children's development is unknown. Our team of neuroscientists, economists and developmental psychologists proposes to fill important gaps in scientific knowledge about the role of economic resources in early development by evaluating the first randomized controlled trial to determine whether unconditional cash gift payments have a causal effect on the cognitive, socio-emotional and brain development of infants and toddlers in low-income U.S. families. Specifically, 1,000 mothers of infants with incomes below the federal poverty line from four diverse U.S. communities will receive monthly cash gift payments by debit card for the first 76 months of the child's life. Parents in the experimental group will receive $333 per month ($4,000 per year), whereas parents in the active comparator group will receive a nominal monthly payment of $20. In order to understand the impacts of the added income on children's cognitive and behavioral development, the investigators will assess experimental/active comparator group differences at age 4 (this lab assessment was postponed from age 3 to age 4 due to Covid-19) and, for a subset of measures, age 2 and age 3 via maternal survey, on measures of cognitive, language, self-regulation and socio-emotional development. Brain circuitry may be sensitive to the effects of early experience even before early behavioral differences can be detected. In order to understand the impacts of added income on children's brain functioning at age 4, the investigators will assess, during a lab visit, experimental/active comparator group differences in measures of brain activity (electroencephalography [EEG]). To understand how family economic behavior, parenting, and parent stress and well-being change in response to income enhancement, the investigators will assess experimental/active comparator differences in family expenditures, food insecurity, housing and neighborhood quality; family routines and time use; parent stress, mental health and cognition; parenting practices; and child care arrangements at child age 2 and age 3, for a subset of these measures, child age 1. This study will thus provide the first definitive understanding of the extent to which income plays a causal role in determining early child cognitive, socio-emotional and brain development among low-income families.
Detailed Description

In the Baby's First Years (BFY) study, one thousand infants born to mothers with incomes falling below the federal poverty threshold in four metropolitan areas in the United States were assigned at random within each of the metropolitan areas to one of two cash gift conditions. The sites are: New York City, the greater New Orleans metropolitan area, the greater Omaha metropolitan area, and the Twin Cities. IRB and recruiting issues led to a distribution of the 1,000 mothers across sites of 121 in one site (the Twin Cities), 295 in two of the other sites (New Orleans and Omaha) and 289 in New York. (We have also randomly sampled 80 of the participating families in the Twin Cities and New Orleans to participate in an in-depth qualitative study, but do not elaborate on those plans in this document.) Mothers were recruited in postpartum wards of the 12 participating hospitals shortly after giving birth and, after consenting, were administered a 30-minute baseline interview. They then were asked to consent to the cash gifts. The "high-cash gift" treatment group mothers (40% of all mothers) are receiving unconditioned cash payments of $333 per month ($4,000 per year) via debit card for 76 months. Mothers in the "low-cash gift" comparator group (60% of all mothers) are receiving a nominal payment - $20 per month, delivered in the same way and also for 76 months. The 40/60 randomization assignment is stratified by site, but not by hospitals, within each of the four sites.

BFY was originally formulated to study the effects of monthly unconditional cash transfers on child development for the first three years of life, with the cash gifts set to be distributed for 40 months (3 years, 4 months). In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to postpone in-person research activities, the cash transfers were extended for an additional year, through 52 months (4 years, 4 months), enabling us to postpone in-person direct child assessments to age 4. In planning future data collection waves and fundraising for another cash transfer extension for the study families, we were able to inform the study participants in August 2022 about an additional 2-year extension of cash transfers lasting to 76 months (6 years, 4 months). Interviews conducted at child ages 1, 2 and 3 are providing information about family functioning as well as several maternal reports of developmentally-appropriate measures of children's cognitive and behavioral development. The current analysis plan includes lab-based assessments at child age 4.

Conditional on participants' consent and our success in securing agreements with state and county agencies, we are also collecting state and local administrative data regarding parental employment, utilization of public benefits such as Medicaid and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Programs (SNAP), and any involvement in child protective services. (We have worked with state and local officials to ensure to the extent feasible that our cash gifts are not considered countable income for the purposes of determining benefit levels from social assistance programs.) The compensation difference between families in the high and low cash gift groups will boost family incomes by $3,760 per year, an amount shown in the economics and developmental psychology literatures to be associated with socially significant and policy relevant improvements in children's school achievement. After accounting for likely attrition, our total sample size of 800 at age 4 years, divided 40/60 between high and low payment groups, provides sufficient statistical power to detect meaningful differences in cognitive, emotional and brain functioning, and key dimensions of family context (see below).

At the age 4 lab visit we will administer validated, reliable and developmentally sensitive measures of language, executive functioning and socioemotional skills. We will also collect direct EEG- and ERP-based measures of young children's brain development at age 4. Measures and preregistered hypotheses about them as well as family-based measures are shown in the two tables at the end of this document. Child-focused preregistered hypotheses are presented in Appendix Table 7 and maternal and family focused preregistered hypotheses are presented in Appendix Table 8.

The family process measures that we will gather are based on two theories of change surrounding the income supplements: that increased investment and reduced stress will facilitate children's healthy development. We are obtaining measures of both of these pathways annually. Investment pathway: Additional resources enable parents to buy goods and services for their families and children that support cognitive development. These include higher quality housing, nutrition and non-parental child care; more cognitively stimulating home environments and learning opportunities outside of the home; and, by reducing or restructuring work hours, more parental time spent with children. Stress pathway: A second pathway is that additional economic resources may reduce parents' own stress and improve their mental health. This may allow parents to devote more positive attention to their children, thus providing a more predictable family life, less conflicted relationships, and warmer and more responsive interactions.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
Parallel assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Masking Description:
Researchers know about amount of cash payment subjects receive at the point of enrollment because they assist subjects with credit card activation and instructions. For follow-up assessments at age 1, 2, 3, 4 interviewers will be blind to the extent possible.
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Condition  ICMJE
  • Child Development
  • Brain Development
  • Household and Family Processes
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $333
    These subjects receive $333 each month for 76 months via debit card.
  • Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $20
    These subjects receive $20 each month for 76 months via debit card.
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Monthly cash gift payments of $333
    These subjects receive $333 each month for 76 months via debit card.
    Intervention: Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $333
  • Active Comparator: Monthly cash gift payments of $20
    These subjects receive $20 each month for 76 months via debit card.
    Intervention: Behavioral: Monthly cash gift payments of $20
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Active, not recruiting
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 9, 2018)
1000
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE July 31, 2024
Estimated Primary Completion Date June 30, 2023   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. mother 18 years or older;
  2. household income below the federal poverty threshold in the calendar year prior to the interview, counting the newborn;
  3. infant admitted to the newborn nursery and not requiring admittance to the intensive care unit;
  4. residence in the state of recruitment;
  5. mother not "highly likely" to move to a different state or country in the next 12 months;
  6. infant to be discharged in the custody of the mother;
  7. English or Spanish speaking (necessary for administration of instruments used to measure some of the child outcomes)

Exclusion Criteria:

Mothers will not be eligible unless all of the above seven criteria are met.

Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female
Gender Based Eligibility: Yes
Gender Eligibility Description: Eligibility: Mothers who just gave birth
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT03593356
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE NIH R01HD087384 [2016-3336]
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: No
Current Responsible Party University of California, Irvine
Original Responsible Party Greg Duncan, University of California, Irvine, Distinguished Professor
Current Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of California, Irvine
Original Study Sponsor  ICMJE Same as current
Collaborators  ICMJE
  • Columbia University
  • University of Wisconsin, Madison
  • New York University
  • University of Maryland
  • University of Nebraska
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of New Orleans
  • University of Michigan
  • Duke University
Investigators  ICMJE
Study Director: Greg Duncan, PhD University of California, Irvine
PRS Account University of California, Irvine
Verification Date December 2022

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP