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Oral vs Intravenous Diltiazem for Rapid Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter Trial (OVID RAF)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03472495
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : March 21, 2018
Last Update Posted : July 22, 2019
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Virginia Commonwealth University

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE February 23, 2018
First Posted Date  ICMJE March 21, 2018
Last Update Posted Date July 22, 2019
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE June 1, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date March 2021   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 20, 2018)
Heart rate control [ Time Frame: 2 hrs ]
Incidence of heart rate control (defined as: HR <110 beats/min or conversion to sinus rhythm) at 2 hours after medication administration between oral immediate release and intravenous continuous infusion diltiazem
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 20, 2018)
Adverse event rate [ Time Frame: 4 hrs ]
Incidence of adverse events: Heart rate < 60 beats/min, or systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg requiring intervention (intravenous fluid bolus, vasopressors, medication discontinuation)
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: March 20, 2018)
Participant specific variables associated with heart rate control in each treatment arm [ Time Frame: 4 hrs ]
These variables include: Age, sex, race, weight, history of atrial fibrillation or flutter, history of hypertension, history of congestive heart failure, prior medication therapy, mean initial HR, duration of atrial fibrillation or flutter episode (<48 hrs or >48 hrs), mean initial diltiazem dose (mg/kg)
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Same as current
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Oral vs Intravenous Diltiazem for Rapid Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter Trial
Official Title  ICMJE Oral vs Intravenous Diltiazem for Rapid Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter Trial
Brief Summary The primary objective of this study is to compare the incidence of rate control (defined as: HR <110 beats/min or conversion to sinus rhythm) at 2 hours after medication administration between oral immediate release diltiazem and intravenous continuous infusion diltiazem.
Detailed Description

Atrial fibrillation (AF), a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, is the primary diagnosis for over 467,000 hospitalizations each year. Historically, there have been two approaches to managing AF in the emergency department (ED): rate control and rhythm control.

The AFFIRM trial compared rate and rhythm control in 4,060 patients. It found no difference in mortality with the rate control approach and less hospitalizations. As a result, both rhythm and rate control are options in stable patients with an AF duration of < 48 hours. After 48 hours, rate control is preferred because of the increased risk of ischemic stroke. The subsequent RACE II trial, established that lenient heart rate control (HR <110 beats/min) was as effective as strict control (HR <80 beats/min) in preventing cardiovascular events and required less outpatient visits to achieve the goal HR. As a result of both the AFFIRM and RACE II trials, a rate control approach with a goal HR of <80-110 beats/min is the management plan for a majority of patients who present to the ED in AF. According to the American Heart Association 2014 guidelines, the initial acute, emergent management of atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) are similar and there are a number of medications used for rate control including beta blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers.

Diltiazem, a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, is often the medication of choice in the management of AFF due to its ability to be given as an intravenous (IV) push, continuous infusion, and oral (PO) immediate release or extended release tablet. In the ED, a loading dose of IV diltiazem 0.25 mg/kg is usually administered to obtain a heart rate of < 110 beats/min or a decrease of at least 20% in the ventricular rate. If this does not work then a second bolus of 0.35mg/kg is administered. Once rate control of <110 beats/min or a 20% decrease in ventricular rate is obtained physicians typically chose between oral immediate release diltiazem tablet or IV continuous infusion diltiazem to maintain heart rate control. Both options allow for dose changes in the short term. The oral immediate release diltiazem tablet has a fast onset of action of 30-60 minutes and is dosed every 6 hours. Intravenous continuous infusion diltiazem has a variable onset of action with a titration frequency of every 15-30 minutes. The use of oral diltiazem allows for possible placement on a monitored general floor bed, whereas an intravenous drip requires placement to step down or intensive level of care. This impacts bed status and length of stay in the emergency department. Both oral and intravenous diltiazem are used clinically; however, no prospective studies exist comparing the two strategies. Retrospective data suggests that both forms are equal in their ability to control heart rate.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 4
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Diltiazem Oral Product
    Diltiazem Immediate Release 60 MG PO Q6H (30 MG PO Q6H if patient is <60 kg)
  • Drug: Diltiazem Injectable Product
    Diltiazem Continuous Infusion Titrated
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Active Comparator: Oral Immediate Release Diltiazem
    Diltiazem immediate release 60mg orally once (Diltiazem oral product)
    Intervention: Drug: Diltiazem Oral Product
  • Active Comparator: Continuous Infusion IV Diltiazem
    Diltiazem 2.5-5 mg/hour intravenous Titrate by 1.25 mg every 15-60 minutes. Maximum titration dose 15 mg/hour. Titration Goal of HR <110 (Diltiazem Injectable Product)
    Intervention: Drug: Diltiazem Injectable Product
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Recruiting
Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: March 20, 2018)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE March 2021
Estimated Primary Completion Date March 2021   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • >/= 18 years old
  • Atrial fibrillation or flutter on electrocardiogram
  • Heart rate >110 beats/min
  • Systolic blood pressure >/= 90 mmHg

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Limited English proficiency (LEP)
  • Pregnant
  • Prisoners
  • Wolff Parkinson White syndrome
  • Administration of electrical or chemical cardioversion before screening
  • Administration of other antiarrhythmics for acute heart rate control (excluding adenosine)
  • History of allergy or idiosyncratic reaction to diltiazem
  • Unable to take oral medications
  • Heart rate <60 beats/min
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE
Contact: Tammy T Nguyen, PharmD, BCPS 8046630969
Contact: Peter Moffett, MD 8046283168
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT03472495
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE HM20009559
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: No
Responsible Party Virginia Commonwealth University
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Virginia Commonwealth University
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Tammy T Nguyen, PharmD, BCPS Virginia Commonwealth University
PRS Account Virginia Commonwealth University
Verification Date July 2019

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP