Emergence Agitation and Pain Scores in Pediatrics When Comparing Single-modal vs Multi-modal Analgesia for ENT Surgery
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03062488|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 23, 2017
Results First Posted : January 18, 2020
Last Update Posted : January 18, 2020
|First Submitted Date ICMJE||February 20, 2017|
|First Posted Date ICMJE||February 23, 2017|
|Results First Submitted Date ICMJE||December 13, 2019|
|Results First Posted Date ICMJE||January 18, 2020|
|Last Update Posted Date||January 18, 2020|
|Actual Study Start Date ICMJE||October 3, 2017|
|Actual Primary Completion Date||July 11, 2018 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
||Emergence Agitation (EA) as Measured by Standardized PAED Scale [ Time Frame: first 60 minutes of recovery post anesthesia ]
Post Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) Scale 0 - 20. EA defined as a score equal or greater than 12
|Original Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
||Emergence agitation as measured by standardized scale PAED [ Time Frame: first 60 minutes of recovery post anesthesia ]
as measured by standardized scale PAED
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures||Not Provided|
|Brief Title ICMJE||Emergence Agitation and Pain Scores in Pediatrics When Comparing Single-modal vs Multi-modal Analgesia for ENT Surgery|
|Official Title ICMJE||Emergence Agitation and Pain Scores in Pediatric Patients Following Sevoflurane Anesthesia When Comparing Single-modal Versus Multi-modal Analgesia for Routine Ear-nose-throat (ENT) Surgery, a Multi-center Double-blinded Study|
|Brief Summary||The purpose of this study is to compare the incidence of EA in pediatric patients undergoing minor ENT surgery under Sevoflurane and compare opioid-only based intra-operative analgesia to multi-modal analgesia consisting of opioid and IV acetaminophen or PO acetaminophen regimen using a validated and standardized EA measurement tool, the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale. The post operative pain scores will be measured in all patients by post-op recovery staff using FLACC Score/Wong-Baker FACES (patients 24 months up to 7 years of age) or Numeric Pain Score for patients 7 years of age. The pre-operative, surgery, anesthesia and post-operative staff will be all blinded.|
Place of Study:
Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, Florida (Primary Site) Wolfson Children's Hospital, Jacksonville, Florida (Nemours Jacksonville Satellite Site)
Prospective Randomized Study Total Number of Patients: 150
Methods and Materials: 150 patients will be randomly divided into three groups of 50 patients. Each group will receive sevoflurane induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Sevoflurane, currently the most commonly used agent for inhalational induction, will be used for induction of anesthesia, as it is less irritating to the tracheobronchial tree than other volatile anesthetic agents and is considered the standard for pediatric induction anesthesia. These three groups, (study arms), are identified as follows:
Group A: multi-modal analgesia of IV fentanyl plus IV acetaminophen and oral placebo Group B: multi-modal analgesia of IV fentanyl plus PO acetaminophen and IV placebo Group C: single modal analgesia of IV fentanyl plus oral placebo and IV placebo Pre-operative procedures: The Research Pharmacy will have the following standards for randomization: prior to patient surgery date; the pharmacy will assemble study kits to contain the appropriate drug products based on the 3 randomization scenarios: A. IV Tylenol and Oral Placebo, B. IV Placebo and Oral Tylenol, or C. IV Placebo and Oral Placebo. The kits will be kept in the pharmacy and identified in a blinded fashion from other study team members. On the day of surgery, (patient dosing day), blinded study team member will provide the signed study consent to pharmacist, along with the patient's weight to be used in calculating dosages of study drug. The pharmacist will then assign the patient to 1 of 3 study arms, in a random approach. Randomization will be performed by using a method based on the biased coin method using a dynamic urn technique. Once the study arm has been determined, the corresponding kit will be used to prepare the study drugs by patient weight. The blinded, randomized study kit information will be kept in a locked Excel spreadsheet, with password access, only available to pharmacy team members. All study drugs will be checked and verified by a licensed pharmacist prior to dispensing to a blinded study team member.
None of the study patients will receive premedication for sedation. Premedication is not a standard treatment at Nemours Children's Hospital (NCH) as NCH allows parental presence during induction of anesthesia to facilitate the transport of the patient to the operating room and decrease separation anxiety. Wolfson Children's Hospital will allow parental presence for study patients. Parental presence is an appropriate substitute for sedation premedication. In the pre-operative area, all patients will receive a de-identified PO syrup. The syrup will be prepared by the pharmacy and will contain acetaminophen (15 mg/kg -160mg/5mL Manufacturer: Major Pharmaceuticals), for the PO acetaminophen group and placebo flavored syrup (Manufacturer: Humco, Ingredients: Sucrose 82.3%, Purified Water, Artificial Flavors, 0.1% Sodium Benzoate as a preservative, Critic Acid, FDC Red #40, and inert ingredients), for the other two groups. This approach will maintain blindness of the peri-operative staff, and patients/parents/guardians.
Intraoperative Procedures and Administration of intra-op analgesia: Before induction of anesthesia the pre-induction vital signs will be reviewed and ASA standard monitors will be applied. Standard ASA monitors include blood pressure, ECG, pulse oxymetry, etCO2
Measurement, respiratory rate and temperature. Induction of anesthesia will be accomplished via inhalation of sevoflurane (8 vol%) in nitrous oxide (70%) and oxygen (30%) at a fresh gas flow of 10 Lpm. An IV will be established and propofol 2mg/Kg will be administered to facilitate endotracheal intubation. After intubation, all children will receive fentanyl (West- Ward Pharmaceuticals) 2 mcg/kg. IV Fentanyl is considered standard of care for analgesia regimen for these types of surgery. Intra-op anesthesia team will be blinded to the use of non- opioid IV analgesia and will administer a pharmacy prepared de-identified infusion (pharmacy will blind the IV formulation of acetaminophen and all pharmacy formulations will follow regulation 797 compounding standards), following intubation that will consist of 0.9% normal saline (Baxter Pharmaceuticals), placebo for control groups and IV acetaminophen (15 mg/kg, - 1000mg/100 cc Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals) for the IV acetaminophen group. The maximum single dose will be 750 mg with a 24-hour maximum dose not to exceed 3,750 mg in this 24-hour period. The product will infuse for 15 minutes as recommended by the manufacturer. For maintenance of anesthesia, children will receive sevoflurane (maximum of 2.0±0.2 MAC, age adjusted) with a constant fresh gas flow of 2 L/min (maximum FIO2 of 30% air mixed with oxygen), using a semi-closed circle breathing system. Ventilation will be controlled to maintain normocapnia (ET-CO2 32-38 mmHg). Additional doses of fentanyl can be administered, per anesthesiologist's discretion, in all groups by increments of 0.5 mcg/Kg IV per dose for hemodynamic response to surgical stimulation greater than 20% above baseline. Removal of the mouth gag for tonsillectomy/tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy/adenoidectomy will be defined as the end of surgery. At this point, inhalation anesthetic will be discontinued. Fresh gas flow will be increased to 8 Lpm, 100% oxygen. Tracheal extubation will be performed when normal ventilation is achieved and cough or gag reflex is regained.
Screening/Consent Process: Potential participants will be identified and receive basic information about the study and enrollment criteria at ENT clinic by participating ENT surgeons. A copy of an unsigned consent will be given to the families who are interested in participating in the study. Anesthesiologists, will obtain PP consent and Assent for eligible children. A signed and dated copy of all consents forms will be given to the parents.
Intraoperative Standardization and Procedures: The surgical technique will be standardized and a limited group of two surgeons per clinical site that share same surgical technique which will be agreed upon at the start of the clinical phase. This technique will consist of only Teflon blade cautery and will require no peri-tonsilar local anesthetic injection. The number of anesthesia providers involved in the study will be limited to two anesthesiologists per clinical site.
The post-operative pain management approach will be restricted to fentanyl (0.5 mcg/Kg IV/dose titrated to effect) for moderate to severe pain. Ibuprofen (10mg/Kg) PO will be ordered for mild to moderate post- op pain. Post-op recovery staff will be limited to a maximum of three trained PACU nurses per site and will use FLACC Scale for age 24 month to 4 years of age and sedated patients at time of assessment, Wong-Baker FACES for patients 4 to 7 years of age and non-verbal patients and Numeric Pain Score for patients equal/greater than 7 years of age to assess level of pain. Episodes of clinical emergence agitation/delirium (EA), will receive rescue treatment. This treatment will consist of 0.5 - 1.0 mcg/Kg IV dexmedetomidine.
Age, gender, height, weight, procedure, duration of surgery, intra-op agents used, exposure and time of discontinuation of anesthesia to extubation will be documented for each patient. A blinded PACU nurse will monitor the patient. The Post-anesthesia unit monitoring standards consist of ECG, Blood Pressure, pulse-oxymetry and respiratory rate every 5 minutes times 3 and every 15 minutes thereafter until discharge. Temperature will be obtained upon arrival to unit and every hour or as needed. All patients will be evaluated for the Aldrete Score which assesses readiness for discharge from post-anesthesia care unit. The PACU nurse will record degree of agitation using the PAED scale and measure and record the pain scores using either the FLACC for patients 24 months to 4 years of age and patients who are sedated at time of assessment, Wonk-Baker FACES for patients 4 to 7 years of age and non-verbal patients and Numeric Pain Scores for patients equal/greater than 7 years of age upon admission to the PACU and every 15 minutes for approximately 1 hour after admission, or until discharge from the PACU, whichever comes first. These nurses will all be experienced in the use of PAED scale. There will be three; two-hour study training sessions at each clinical site for PACU participating nurses. PACU nurses assigned to this study will be selecting the Modified Aldrete scores (respiration, O2saturation, consciousness, circulation, activity) and documenting adverse events
The investigative team assures that informed consent is obtained prior to performing any research procedures, that all subjects meet eligibility criteria, and that the study is conducted according to the IRB-approved research protocol.
Collection and Reporting of SAEs and AEs:
For this study, the following standard AE definitions are used:
Adverse event: Any unfavorable and unintended sign, symptom or disease temporally associated with the use of a medical treatment or procedure, regardless of whether it is considered related to the medical treatment or procedure.
Serious Adverse Event: Any AE that results in any of the following outcomes:
AEs identified will be captured in real time as they become known. AEs that result in visits to the ED and/or outpatient clinics will be monitored at each site through their readmission- monitoring program and reported to the department of Anesthesiology by the quality and safety officer. In addition, all AEs are reported in Orlando according to the Nemours IRB AE reporting guidelines and in Jacksonville, according to the Baptist Health IRB AE guidelines.
Treatment of AEs:
In case of a symptomatic event where a severe adverse event or any SAE is noticed, the blinding can be broken by accessing a sealed envelope that contains the assigned drugs in the randomization process and appropriate treatment will be instituted. These patients will be withdrawn from the study but the clinical and research team will continue to collect safety information. This data will be included in the safety database and reported during monthly meetings. Nemours will assure that the participant receives treatment, if needed , for study- related injuries.
Episodes of clinical emergence agitation/delirium (EA), will receive rescue treatment. This treatment will consist of 0.5 - 1.0 mcg/Kg IV dexmedetomidine as previously stated.
All patients will be instructed not to start the next dose of acetaminophen until 6 hours after last administered dose. This dose correlates to the time of intra-operative IV infusion administration.
All discharged patients will receive a call within 24 hours of surgery for follow-up.
|Study Type ICMJE||Interventional|
|Study Phase ICMJE||Early Phase 1|
|Study Design ICMJE||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
all patients will receive a de-identified PO syrup. The syrup will be prepared by the pharmacy and will contain acetaminophen (15 mg/kg) for the PO acetaminophen group and placebo flavored syrup for the other two groups. This approach will maintain blindness of the peri-operative staff, and patients/parents., all children will receive fentanyl 2 mcg/Kg IV. Intra-op anesthesia team will be blinded to the use of non-opioid IV analgesia and will administer a pharmacy prepared de-identified infusion following intubation that will consist of saline placebo for control groups and IV acetaminophen (15 mg/kg) for the IV acetaminophen group. ,
:A blinded PACU nurse will record degree of agitation using the PAED scale on admission to the PACU
|Study Arms ICMJE||
|Publications *||Not Provided|
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status ICMJE||Completed|
|Actual Enrollment ICMJE
|Original Estimated Enrollment ICMJE
|Actual Study Completion Date ICMJE||July 11, 2018|
|Actual Primary Completion Date||July 11, 2018 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Eligibility Criteria ICMJE||
|Ages ICMJE||24 Months to 7 Years (Child)|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers ICMJE||Yes|
|Contacts ICMJE||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Listed Location Countries ICMJE||United States|
|Removed Location Countries|
|NCT Number ICMJE||NCT03062488|
|Other Study ID Numbers ICMJE||IRB1074554|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||Yes|
|U.S. FDA-regulated Product||
|IPD Sharing Statement ICMJE||
|Responsible Party||Nemours Children's Clinic|
|Study Sponsor ICMJE||Nemours Children's Clinic|
|Collaborators ICMJE||University of Central Florida|
|PRS Account||Nemours Children's Clinic|
|Verification Date||August 2017|
ICMJE Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP