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Flaxseed Consumption and Bone Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women. (FLAX)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03036722
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified May 2018 by Dr Daniel Commane, University of Reading.
Recruitment status was:  Recruiting
First Posted : January 30, 2017
Last Update Posted : May 16, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Dr Daniel Commane, University of Reading

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE January 26, 2017
First Posted Date  ICMJE January 30, 2017
Last Update Posted Date May 16, 2018
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE May 10, 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date November 1, 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 26, 2017)
Determine the benefits of phytoestrogen-rich flaxseeds on decreasing bone turnover in postmenopausal women. [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
To observe the effect of consuming 40g of flaxseeds/ daily for 12 weeks on bone health of postmenopausal women by measuring some markers of bone resorption and formation 3 during the study period (baseline, 6 and 12 week)
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 26, 2017)
Gut microbial [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
Observe the role of gut microbial on flaxseed metabolite.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Flaxseed Consumption and Bone Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women.
Official Title  ICMJE Effect of Phytoestrogen-rich Flaxseeds on Decreasing Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women Aged Between 50 -70 Years.
Brief Summary This proposed randomized double blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel trial; with two arms, in females aged 50-70 years, volunteers will be postmenopausal with a BMI between 25-35 kg/m2. This study aims to determine the benefits of phytoestrogen-rich flaxseeds on decreasing bone turnover in postmenopausal women aged over 50 years.
Detailed Description

Osteoporosis affects approximately 1 in 3 women over the age of 50 and accounts for more days spent in hospital than diabetes and breast cancer; amongst women of that age group. Aging, a sedentary lifestyle, a poor diet and smoking are all risk factors. A healthy diet (including food rich in calcium, vitamin D and phytoestrogens) may protect against osteoporosis and risk of fractures. Phytoestrogens in the diet are of putative benefit through and post the menopause. The term phytoestrogens describes a wide variety of plant food derived chemicals having a structure similar to estradiol (oestrogen). The three main classes of phytoestrogens are the isoflavones, the lignans and coumestans. Oil seeds are a good source of lignans, with flaxseeds being particularly rich. Flaxseeds consumption has previously been associated with changes in bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women.

This study therefore is designed to test the hypothesis that consumption of a quantity of flaxseeds achievable in an individual's habitual diet (40g) will induce improvements in bone turnover markers, mediated through the increased circulation of phytoestrogens, in postmenopausal women.

. The study arms are i) A placebo control arm, volunteers consume a placebo 40g porridge (matched for fibre and fat with the flaxseed product) every day over 12 weeks, or ii) 40g of flaxseeds added to 40g porridge daily over a 12 week study period. Adherence to the intervention will be assessed via analysis of concentrations of the mammalian lignans enterolactone and enterodiol in urine. The primary outcome for the study will be changes in markers of bone health. The secondary outcomes for the study will be changes in urinary and plasma androgens. Volunteers will need to attend the Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition clinical unit on four occasions to facilitate screening and the study visit.

Volunteers will be required to provide a fasting blood (30ml; 2 tablespoons); 24 hr urine (started the day prior to each study visit) and faecal samples at all 3 study visits (baseline, weeks 6 and 12). As vitamin D status and bone turnover markers are related to bone health, the volunteers will be given the opportunity to undergo an additional measurement of total body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and week 12.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Bone Loss, Age Realted
  • Post Menopausal
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Other: Flaxseed
    Flaxseed is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop and it occurs in two basic varieties: brown and yellow or golden (also known as golden linseeds).
  • Other: Placebo control porridge
    control porridge matched for energy and fat content.
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Flaxseed porridge group
    22 volunteer will be given 80g of a pre prepared porridge meal containing 40 g of ground (flaxseed) to consume daily.
    Intervention: Other: Flaxseed
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo control porridge group
    22 volunteer will be given 78.5g preprepared control porridge matched for energy and fat content to consume daily ( Matching food products: 22g MCT (medium chain Triglyceride), 5.5g pure egg white powder, 11g cream of rice).
    Intervention: Other: Placebo control porridge
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Unknown status
Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 26, 2017)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE November 1, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date November 1, 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Postmenopausal women (self reported of final menstrual cycle occurred at least 1 year ago).
  • 50-70 years.
  • BMI ≥25-35 kg/m2.
  • Fasting serum Glucose <7 mmol/l (not diagnosed with diabetes)
  • Fasting total cholesterol<7.8 mmol/l and triacylglycerol <2.3 mmol/l.
  • Normal liver and kidney function (assessed by measuring total bilirubin, uric acid, creatinine and liver enzymes in the screening blood sample).
  • Not having suffered fractures of the hip, wrist or spine, osteoporosis or osteomalacia.
  • Blood pressure lower than BP <140/90 mmHg.
  • Not having any medical related cause that influencing bone turnover; these include:

    • Steroid medical treatment, e.g. 5 mg/ day of prednisolone.
    • Abnormal hormonal fluctuation women who self-reported previous diagnoses of thyroid disease, Thyroid hormonal abnormalities, progesterone and oestrogen high level.
    • Diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency.
  • Not suffering any cardiovascular diseases/ heart diseases e.g. stroke in the past 12 months.
  • Not using hormone replacement medicine e.g. oestrogen.
  • Not using any calcium or vitamin D supplements during the last 3 months.
  • Not suffering from renal or bowel disease.
  • No history of alcohol misuse based on self-reported alcohol intake and measurement of liver enzymes in the screening blood sample.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Women who became menopausal as the result of surgery (e.x. removal of both ovaries).
  • Current smoker.
  • Anaemic, haemoglobin ≤ 115g/l or who have abnormal blood biochemistry based on standard clinical cut- offs.
  • Have history of food intolerances/allergies (e.g. gluten or dairy) or intolerances (e.g. lactose).
  • Received antibiotics in the previous six months.
  • Trying to lose weight by following a diet or exercise regimen designed for weight loss, or taking any drug influencing appetite and any drug for weight loss for the last three months.
  • Have participated in similar dietary or probiotics-containing product's clinical trials within 3 months before the screening visit.
  • Using soy/isoflavone, flax oil and flax supplements.
  • Using prebiotic / probiotic during the last 6 months.
  • Excessive exercise more than three times a week, including weight bearing exercise.
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: Female
Ages  ICMJE 50 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United Kingdom
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT03036722
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE UOReading
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided
Responsible Party Dr Daniel Commane, University of Reading
Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Reading
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Study Chair: Mike Proven, PhD Ethics committee Co-ordinator
PRS Account University of Reading
Verification Date May 2018

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP