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The REFLECT Trial: Cerebral Protection to Reduce Cerebral Embolic Lesions After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02536196
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 31, 2015
Results First Posted : February 18, 2021
Last Update Posted : February 18, 2021
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Keystone Heart

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE August 26, 2015
First Posted Date  ICMJE August 31, 2015
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE October 23, 2020
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE February 18, 2021
Last Update Posted Date February 18, 2021
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE June 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date May 2019   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 16, 2021)
  • Primary Safety Endpoint - Composite Safety Endpoint Based on MACCE [ Time Frame: 30 Days ]
    Combined safety endpoint at 30 days defined according to VARC-2 ("TAVI early safety") as a composite of:
    1. All-cause mortality - number of patients that expired
    2. All stroke (disabling and non-disabling) - defined by VARC-2 scale
    3. Life-threatening or disabled bleeding - BARC bleeding scale - 5 point scale ranging from no bleeding to fatal
    4. Acute kidney injury - Stage 2 or 3 (including renal replacement therapy)
    5. Coronary artery obstruction requiring intervention
    6. Major vascular complication, and
    7. Valve-related dysfunction requiring repeat procedure (BAV, TAVI, or SAVR) - number of patients in whom a valve related dysfunction occurred It was pre-specified to combine all participants that received the device in the andomized Intervention and Roll-in Arms/Groups for this Outcome Measure.
  • Primary Efficacy Endpoint [ Time Frame: Pre-discharge through 30-days ]
    Hierarchical composite efficacy endpt, determined by pair-wise comparisons among subjects according to hierarchy:
    • mortality or any stroke [30 days]
    • death/stroke time to event analysis by days determine win
    • stroke at same day the comparison moves to next tier
    • NIHSS worsening [2-5 days post]
    • Freedom from lesions detected by DW-MRI 2-5 days post
    • Total volume lesions detected by DW-MRI 2-5 days post Each subj in intervention compared with each subj from control based on hierarchy according to Finkelstein-Schoenfeld method. If Subj A dies or has stroke &Subj B survives free of stroke to 30 days, Subj B wins(score+1) &Subj A loses (score-1). Both die or have stroke, patient with later event wins. Both have death/stroke on same day is equilibrium (score 0). Both are alive & have stroke on same day, comparison moves to next tier. Both stroke-free to 30 days, comparison moves to the next tier. Scores summed to cumulative score for each subj, &outcomes between groups are compared.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 27, 2015)
Total volume of cerebral ischemic lesions detected by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) [ Time Frame: 2 to 5 days post-procedure ]
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: August 27, 2015)
In-hospital Procedural Safety [ Time Frame: 30 Days post-procedure ]
In-hospital procedural safety, defined as the composite of the following Major Adverse Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events (MACCE): 1) coronary artery obstruction requiring intervention, 2) major vascular complication, and 3) valve-related dysfunction requiring repeat procedure
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE The REFLECT Trial: Cerebral Protection to Reduce Cerebral Embolic Lesions After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
Official Title  ICMJE A Randomized Evaluation of the TriGuard Embolic Deflection Device to Reduce the Impact of Cerebral Embolic Lesions After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
Brief Summary

The Keystone Heart TriGuard™ HDH is an aortic embolism deflection device intended to reduce the amount of embolic material that may enter the carotid, subclavian, and vertebral arteries during transcatheter heart valve implantation.

The objective of the study is to assess the safety and efficacy of the TriGuard™ HDH embolic deflection device in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), in comparison with an active control group of patients undergoing unprotected TAVI.

Subjects with indications for TAVI and who meet study eligibility criteria will be randomized 2:1 to one of two treatment arms: 1) Intervention: Embolic protection device (TriGuard™) with transcatheter aortic valve implantation or 2) Control: Unprotected transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Detailed Description

This prospective, single-blind, three arm, randomized, (2 device: 1 control), multicenter safety and efficacy trial is designed to enroll up to 603 total subjects in two consecutive phases: Phase I enrolled 258 subjects (including 54 Roll-Ins) and utilized the TriGuard HDH and Phase II will enroll up to 345 subjects (including 40-50 Roll-Ins) and will utilize the TriGUARD 3 (Figure 3b shows the patient flow/disposition).

Phase I In phase I, a total of 204 evaluable subjects and 54 roll-in subjects were enrolled at 26 total investigational sites in the United States, Europe, and Israel, of which 20 sites were in the United States. A minimum of 50% of subjects were planned to be enrolled at US sites, and no single site was permitted to enroll more than 20% of all subjects.

Subjects with indications for TAVI and who met study eligibility criteria were randomized 2:1 (stratified by study site) to one of two treatment arms:

  • Intervention (Phase 1 Cohort) - TAVI with the TriGuard HDH CEPD
  • Control - standard unprotected TAVI At sites where the investigator did not have prior experience with the TriGuard device (minimum of 2 prior cases), up to 3 roll-in subjects were enrolled. Roll-in subjects were not randomized, but underwent TAVI with the TriGuard HDH device. These cases were proctored by a Sponsor representative. Investigational sites with ≥2 prior TriGuard cases were allowed to enroll 1 roll-in subject at the discretion of the site principal investigator.

All subjects were to be followed clinically in-hospital and at 30 and 90 days, and to undergo diffusion-weighted MR imaging 2 to 5 days post-procedure, and neurologic and neuropsychological testing pre-procedure, post-procedure (2-5 days post-procedure), and at 30 and 90 days.

The initial randomized cohort expected to enroll up to 285 subjects. Note: Enrollment in Phase I has been halted after enrolling a total of 258 subjects (54 roll-ins and 204 randomized subjects including 63 controls) based on the recommendation of the Data Monitoring Committee following a review of interim 30-day data on 90 subjects at the prespecified interim analysis time point. A next iteration device designed for increased efficacy, ease of use, and improved safety will be tested in Phase II (below).

Phase II In Phase II, up to 295 randomized subjects and 40-50 roll-in subjects will be enrolled at up to 25 sites in the United States (inclusive of sites enrolling subjects in Phase I). No single site will be permitted to enroll more than 20% of all randomized subjects in Phase II.

Subjects with indications for TAVI and who meet study eligibility criteria will be randomized 2:1 (stratified by study site) to one of two treatment arms:

  • Intervention - TAVI with the TriGUARD 3 CEPD
  • Control - standard unprotected TAVI. Randomization will be stratified by implanted valve type (Medtronic vs. Edwards).

No single valve type will be implanted in more than approximately 70% of randomized patients (phase II).

Roll-in subjects (a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 3 Roll-ins per-site) will not be randomized, but will undergo TAVI with the TriGUARD 3 device. These cases will be proctored by a Sponsor representative.

All subjects will be followed clinically in-hospital and at 30 days, undergo diffusion-weighted MR imaging 2 to 5 days post-procedure, and undergo neurologic (NIHSS) testing pre-procedure, post-procedure (2-5 days post-procedure), and at 30 days. A follow-up phone-call to assess the occurrence of death or stroke will be done at 90 days.

The initial randomized cohort will consist of up to 225 subjects. After at least 50% of the initial randomized cohort (approximately 112 subjects) have reached the 30 day primary efficacy endpoint evaluation time point, a sample size reestimation will be performed in case the conditional power of the trial (assessed by the independent biostatistician) is >40% but <80%, subject to approval by the Sponsor. If this analysis determines that more than 225 randomized subjects will be required to ensure adequate study power, enrollment may continue until the required number of subjects have been enrolled, or until the total subject limit for the study has been reached (whichever occurs first).

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Condition  ICMJE Symptomatic Aortic Stenosis
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Device: Embolic Protection Device
    Embolic protection
  • Procedure: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Intervention
    Embolic Protection with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
    Interventions:
    • Device: Embolic Protection Device
    • Procedure: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
  • Active Comparator: Control Arm
    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) without embolic protection
    Intervention: Procedure: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 11, 2019)
478
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 27, 2015)
285
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE June 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date May 2019   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Subjects must meet ALL of the following criteria:

General Inclusion Criteria

  1. The patient is a male or non-pregnant female ≥18 years of age
  2. The patient meets indications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)
  3. The patient is willing to comply with protocol-specified follow-up evaluations
  4. The patient, or legally authorized representative, has been informed of the nature of the study, agrees to its provisions and has provided written informed consent, approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Ethics Committee (EC).

Potential Subjects will be excluded if ANY of the following criteria apply:

General Exclusion Criteria

  1. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) via the trans-axillary, trans-subclavian, or trans-aortic route
  2. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) via the transapical approach due to friable or mobile atherosclerotic plaque in the aortic arch
  3. Patients with a previously implanted prosthetic aortic valve (i.e., planned valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI))
  4. Pregnant or nursing subjects and those who plan pregnancy in the period up to 1 year following index procedure. Female subjects of child-bearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test done within 14 days prior to index procedure per site standard test
  5. Patients with known diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within 72 hours preceding the index procedure (according to definition) or AMI >72 hours preceding the index procedure, in whom Creatine Kinase (CK) and CK-MB have not returned to within normal limits at the time of procedure, or patients who are currently experiencing clinical symptoms consistent with new-onset AMI, such as nitrate-unresponsive prolonged chest pain
  6. Patients with a history of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy or patients in whom anti-platelet and/or anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated, patients who will refuse transfusion, or patients with an active peptic ulcer or history of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding within the prior 3 months
  7. Patients with known mental or physical illness or known history of substance abuse that may cause non-compliance with the protocol, confound the data interpretation, or is associated with a life expectancy of less than one year
  8. Patients with severe allergy or known hypersensitivity or contraindication to aspirin, heparin/bivalirudin, clopidogrel, nitinol, stainless steel alloy, and/or contrast sensitivity that cannot be adequately pre-medicated
  9. Patients with a history of a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within the prior 6 months
  10. Patients with renal failure (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate [eGFR] <30 mL/min, calculated from serum creatinine by the Cockcroft-Gault formula)
  11. Patients with hepatic failure (Child-Pugh class C)
  12. Patients with hypercoagulable states that cannot be corrected by additional periprocedural heparin
  13. Patients presenting with cardiogenic shock at the time of the index procedure
  14. Patients with severe peripheral arterial, abdominal aortic, or thoracic aortic disease that precludes delivery sheath vascular access
  15. Patients in whom the aortic arch, innominate artery ostium, or proximal innominate artery is heavily calcified, severely atheromatous, or severely tortuous
  16. Patients with an innominate artery ostium diameter <10 mm or >25 mm
  17. Patients with a transverse aortic diameter >43
  18. Patients with anatomic irregularities of the innominate artery that could prevent positioning of the TriGuard upper stabilizer and compromise stability of the device
  19. Patients with any other condition that would prevent adherence to the TriGuard HDH Instructions for Use
  20. Patients with contraindication to cerebral MRI
  21. Patients who have a planned treatment with any other investigational device or procedure during the study period
  22. Patients planned to undergo any other cardiac surgical or interventional procedure (e.g., concurrent coronary revascularization) during the TAVI procedure or within 10 days prior to the TAVI procedure. NOTE: Diagnostic cardiac catheterization is permitted within 10 day prior to the TAVI procedure
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Germany,   Italy,   Netherlands,   United States
Removed Location Countries Israel,   United Kingdom
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT02536196
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE REFLECT
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Keystone Heart
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Keystone Heart
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Alexandra J Lansky, MD alexandra.lansky@yale.edu
PRS Account Keystone Heart
Verification Date February 2021

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP