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Efficacy of Repeated Ketamine Infusions for Treatment-resistant Depression

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02360280
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 10, 2015
Results First Posted : December 3, 2019
Last Update Posted : June 7, 2022
Mayo Clinic
University of Minnesota
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
VA Office of Research and Development

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE January 29, 2015
First Posted Date  ICMJE February 10, 2015
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE October 21, 2019
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE December 3, 2019
Last Update Posted Date June 7, 2022
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE April 1, 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date October 22, 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 13, 2019)
Change From Baseline in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Score After 12 Days of Treatment [ Time Frame: 13 days ]
Average difference in the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score change between groups. The MADRS has 10-items which are based on mood symptoms over the past 7 days. Each items is scored 0 (normal) to 6 (severe depression) with overall score ranges from 0 (normal) to 60 (severe depression).
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 4, 2015)
the efficacy of a single vs. six ketamine infusions in change from baseline in Montgomery- sberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score after 12 days of treatment. [ Time Frame: 13 days ]
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 13, 2019)
  • Antidepressant Response Defined as >50% Decrease in MADRS Baseline Score [ Time Frame: 13 days ]
    Comparing the number of subjects that achieve response between groups as defined above.
  • Remission Defined as MADRS Score Equal or Less Than 9 [ Time Frame: 13 days ]
    Comparing the number of subjects that achieve remission between groups as defined above
  • Time From Post-infusion Response to Occurrence of Relapse Defined as <50% of Baseline MADRS Score [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    The length of time from post-infusion response until relapse (defined as >50% of MADRS baseline score) assessed for up to 6 months.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 4, 2015)
  • Antidepressant response defined as >50% decrease in MADRS baseline score [ Time Frame: 13 days ]
  • Remission defined as MADRS score 9 [ Time Frame: 13 days ]
  • Comparing the durability of antidepressant effect of a single vs. six ketamine infusions from post-infusion response to occurrence of relapse <50% of baseline MADRS score [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Efficacy of Repeated Ketamine Infusions for Treatment-resistant Depression
Official Title  ICMJE Intravenous Sub-anesthetic Ketamine Treatment in Treatment-Resistant Depression
Brief Summary About one-third of depressed patients will not get better after multiple antidepressant treatments. This situation put a high burden on patients with depression due to worsening quality of life and increasing health care costs. Difficult-to-treat depression might be even worse among Veterans given that the frequency of depressive symptoms is 2 to 5 times higher than among the general US population. A breakthrough discovery happened in recent years when investigators found that one infusion from an old anesthetic named ketamine showed high efficacy and rapid antidepressant effect (sometimes within hours) but lasted only up to a week. The investigators propose to study if multiple infusions of ketamine can provide greater and longer antidepressant effects than one infusion. If that is the case, multiple infusions could be an alternative to relieve depressive symptoms that do not response to multiple antidepressant drugs.
Detailed Description Recent studies have found rapid and highly efficacious antidepressant effects of a single ketamine infusion in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, a single infusion appears insufficient to maintain response as most patients return to previous depressive state within a week. The strategy of multiple infusions to increase efficacy and sustain antidepressant effects has not yet been systematically evaluated in an randomized control trial (RCT). The proposed study is a one-center, interventional, efficacy study designed to determine antidepressant outcomes of serial ketamine infusions compared to a single ketamine infusion among Veterans with TRD. The investigators have hypothesized that six infusions will be superior to a single infusion of ketamine in both decreasing severity of depressive symptoms and maintaining response. Participants will be male/female Veterans (18 to 75 years old) of any era or military background who suffer from TRD defined as failure to achieve remission from at least 2 antidepressant trials of different pharmacological classes. Potential participants will be recruited from Mental Health clinics and screened for eligibility using a two stage process (phone/chart review, followed by interview). Exclusion criteria includes post-traumatic stress disorder, psychosis-related disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol/substance use disorder 6 months prior to screening; unstable medical illness; serious/imminent suicidal/homicidal risk; Parkinson's disease, dementia, seizures; traumatic brain injury; contraindicated medications (e.g., MAO inhibitors, barbiturates); received electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) during current episode; pregnancy/nursing. Baseline assessments will be completed 1-2 weeks prior to starting treatment. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two parallel treatment conditions: 1) six ketamine infusions at 0.5 mg/kg or 2) single ketamine infusion at 0.5 mg/kg preceded by five midazolam infusions at 0.045 mg/kg. Midazolam was chosen as an active placebo given similar pharmacokinetics and dissociative effect profile to ketamine. Each intervention will be provided for a total of 12-day infusion-phase on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule. The, follow-up visits will occur at weekly intervals for the first 4 weeks, at 2-week intervals for the next 8 weeks, and at 4-week intervals for the remaining 12 weeks or until relapse. The primary end point is the Montgomery- sberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score 24 hours following the last infusion where the peak antidepressant effects of ketamine occur. Secondary outcomes for the treatment phase include remission defined by MADRS<10, and response defined as a reduction in the baseline MADRS score 50%. For the follow-up period, durability of antidepressant response will be defined by "time to relapse" to a MADRS score <50% of baseline at that visit. Independent evaluation of depressive symptom severity and potential covariates of antidepressant effect (e.g., pain intensity, level of anxiety) will be ascertained at baseline, at several time points during infusion period, and at follow-up. On the day of infusion, subjects will arrive in the morning after an overnight fast. Hemodynamic measures will be recorded every 10 min for 1 hour beginning 10 min before infusion. Subjects will then receive IV infusion over 40 minutes. Severity of depressive symptoms, pain intensity, level of anxiety will be obtained before and 24 hours after infusion. Acute dissociative effects, manic/hypomanic symptoms, and psychotomimetic effects will be measured 30 minutes before the start of each infusion and at the end of infusion (t0+40 mins) and again at t0+120mins and t0+180mins. The infusion will be discontinued in the event of significant adverse events. Procedures for the subsequent infusions at days 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12 will be identical to those of the first infusion.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Treatment-resistant Depression
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: ketamine
  • Drug: midazolam
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Six ketamine infusions
    Six infusions of 0.5 mg/Kg of ketamine hydrochloride solution over 2 weeks.
    Intervention: Drug: ketamine
  • Active Comparator: Single ketamine infusion preceded by 5 midazolam infusions
    Single infusion of 0.5 mg/Kg of ketamine hydrochloride solution preceded by midazolam 0.045 mg/kg over 2 weeks.
    • Drug: ketamine
    • Drug: midazolam
Publications *

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 24, 2019)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: February 4, 2015)
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE March 19, 2019
Actual Primary Completion Date October 22, 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male or female Veterans aged 18 to 75 years.
  • Have a telephone in their home and able to hear telephone conversations.
  • Must meet current DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), single or recurrent, without psychotic features confirmed by depression subset of the Structured Clinical Interview-Clinical Trial for DSM-IV (SCID).
  • Have score 32 on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (IDS-C30)for severity of major depressive episode (MDE) at screening.
  • Current major depressive episode resistant to treatment defined as failure to achieve improvement from at least 2 antidepressant trials of different pharmacological classes. Systematic evaluation of previous antidepressant trials will be assessed by the Antidepressant Treatment History Form (ATHF) .
  • If applicable, current antidepressant dosages including augmenting agents and/or frequency and duration of psychotherapy sessions must remain stable for at least 6 weeks prior to beginning of the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Inability to speak English.
  • Inability or unwillingness to provide written informed consent.
  • Moderate/severe cognitive impairment by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores 27.
  • Current or lifetime DSM-V criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, psychosis-related disorder, bipolar disorder I or II disorder, substance-induced mood disorder, any mood disorder due to a general medical condition or any Axis I disorder other than MDD as the primary presenting problem.
  • History of moderate or severe traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, dementia of any type, multiple sclerosis, seizures or other central nervous system (CNS) related disorders.
  • History of comorbid substance disorder within 6 months of assessment plus positive urine toxicology screen test during baseline assessments.
  • Clinically unstable medical illness that could compromise the patient's ability to tolerate or likely interfere with the study procedures (e.g., history of or current myocardial ischemia or arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, severe pulmonary, renal, or hepatic disease, uncontrolled hypertension).
  • Current or within less than 14 days use of barbiturates or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOi).
  • For women: pregnancy (confirmed by lab test), initiation of female hormonal treatments within 3 months of screening, or inability/ unwillingness to use a medically accepted contraceptive method during the study.
  • Imminent risk of suicidal/homicidal ideation and/or behavior with intent and/or plan.
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT02360280
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE CLNA-018-14S
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Product Manufactured in and Exported from the U.S.: No
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: No
Current Responsible Party VA Office of Research and Development
Original Responsible Party US Department of Veterans Affairs
Current Study Sponsor  ICMJE VA Office of Research and Development
Original Study Sponsor  ICMJE US Department of Veterans Affairs
Collaborators  ICMJE
  • Mayo Clinic
  • University of Minnesota
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Paulo R Shiroma, MD Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN
PRS Account VA Office of Research and Development
Verification Date May 2022

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP