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Delays to Influence Snack Choice (DISC)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02359916
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 10, 2015
Results First Posted : January 26, 2018
Last Update Posted : February 23, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Brad Appelhans, Rush University Medical Center

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date February 2, 2015
First Posted Date February 10, 2015
Results First Submitted Date February 1, 2017
Results First Posted Date January 26, 2018
Last Update Posted Date February 23, 2018
Study Start Date June 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date August 2016   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: June 20, 2017)
Proportion of Healthy Snacks Purchased [ Time Frame: 28 weeks per vending location ]
For each experimental condition, we will calculate the proportion of healthy vs unhealthy snacks sold over 4 weeks.
Original Primary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: February 4, 2015)
Proportion of healthy snacks purchased [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
For each experimental condition, we will calculate the proportion of healthy vs unhealthy snacks sold over 4 weeks.
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: January 25, 2018)
Total Daily Vending Revenue in US$/Day [ Time Frame: Number of days per condition were as follows - Baseline: 119 days, Discount only: 59 days, Delay only: 68 days, Delay + Discount: 49 days, Tax only: 73 days, Delay + Tax: 60 days ]
Total vending machine revenue under each condition
Original Secondary Outcome Measures
 (submitted: February 4, 2015)
  • Average calorie content of purchased snacks [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the energy content of purchased snacks over 4 weeks
  • Average percentage calories from fat of purchased snacks [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the percentage calories from fat of purchased snacks over 4 weeks
  • Average sodium content of purchased snacks [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the average sodium content of purchased snacks over 4 weeks
  • Average trans fat content of purchased snacks [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the average trans fat content of purchased snacks over 4 weeks
  • Average saturated fat content of purchased snacks [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the average saturated fat content of purchased snacks over 4 weeks
  • Average fiber content of purchased snacks [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the average fiber content of purchased snacks over 4 weeks
  • Average added sugar content of purchased snacks [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    For each experimental condition, we will calculate the average added sugar content of purchased snacks over 4 weeks
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: February 4, 2015)
total snack sales in US$ [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
Total vending machine snack sales under each condition
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title Delays to Influence Snack Choice
Official Title Time Over Money? A Novel System to Influence Snack Machine Choices
Brief Summary The pervasiveness of high-calorie, nutrient-poor snacks in the environment is believed to have contributed to the epidemic levels of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the U.S. This project tests whether a novel snack vending machine system that uses brief time delays to reduce the immediacy of reward from unhealthy snacks will improve the healthfulness of snack choices. If successful, this project will identify a new environmental intervention that could contribute substantially to obesity and cardiometabolic disease prevention efforts in schools, worksites, and other settings.
Detailed Description Environmental interventions that address the high availability of unhealthy snacks in the environment are needed to prevent a large projected increase in the incidence of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the U.S. Prior studies from the investigators group and others suggests that the human preference for immediate gratification from food drives dietary overconsumption, but this knowledge has not yet translated to more effective dietary intervention strategies. This project tests whether a novel snack vending machine system that uses brief time delays to reduce the immediacy of reward from unhealthy snacks will improve the healthfulness of snack choices. This study uses an experimental design to compare brief time delays, two forms of 25% differential pricing, and time delays combined with both forms of 25% differential pricing on their ability to increase purchasing of healthy snacks. Test machines will be placed in existing, high-volume vending locations, and each of these five experimental conditions will run for roughly four weeks. Additionally, baseline purchasing under no intervention will be monitored for four weeks before and four weeks after the five experimental conditions. Specific Aim 2 compares the effects of these five interventions against baseline on the proportion of total vending sales from healthy snacks. Specific Aim 3 tests whether time delays or differential pricing harm overall vending machine sales in the test machines. This study not only tests a compelling theory about the effects of time delays and immediate reward on food choice, but evaluates the efficacy and feasibility of a novel intervention to improve the healthfulness of snack choices in worksites, schools, and other settings.
Study Type Observational
Study Design Observational Model: Ecologic or Community
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Target Follow-Up Duration Not Provided
Biospecimen Not Provided
Sampling Method Non-Probability Sample
Study Population This is an environmental intervention. No subjects will be recruited or enrolled.
Condition Food Choice
Intervention
  • Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
  • Other: 25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks
  • Other: 25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks
Study Groups/Cohorts
  • A
    Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays
  • B
    Healthier snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, no delays
    Intervention: Other: 25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks
  • C
    Less healthy snacks sold at equal pricing with delays
    Intervention: Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
  • D
    Healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 discount, plus delays on less healthy snacks
    Interventions:
    • Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
    • Other: 25%/$0.25 discount on healthy snacks
  • E
    Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, no delays
    Intervention: Other: 25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks
  • F
    Less healthy snacks sold at 25% or $0.25 higher price, plus delays
    Interventions:
    • Other: Time delays on delivery of less healthy snacks
    • Other: 25%/$0.25 tax on less healthy snacks
  • G
    Snacks sold under equal pricing, no delays
Publications * Appelhans BM, French SA, Olinger T, Bogucki M, Janssen I, Avery-Mamer EF, Powell LM. Leveraging delay discounting for health: Can time delays influence food choice? Appetite. 2018 Jul 1;126:16-25. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.03.010. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status Completed
Actual Enrollment
 (submitted: October 3, 2016)
32662
Original Estimated Enrollment
 (submitted: February 4, 2015)
4900
Actual Study Completion Date August 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date August 2016   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Not applicable

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Not applicable
Sex/Gender
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages Child, Adult, Older Adult
Accepts Healthy Volunteers Yes
Contacts Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number NCT02359916
Other Study ID Numbers 13012802
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement Not Provided
Responsible Party Brad Appelhans, Rush University Medical Center
Study Sponsor Rush University Medical Center
Collaborators Not Provided
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Bradley M Appelhans, PhD Associate Professor
PRS Account Rush University Medical Center
Verification Date January 2018