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CrossFit Exercise to Improve Glucose Control for Overweight and Obese Adults

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02185872
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 10, 2014
Last Update Posted : March 31, 2015
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Katie M. Heinrich, Kansas State University

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE July 3, 2014
First Posted Date  ICMJE July 10, 2014
Last Update Posted Date March 31, 2015
Study Start Date  ICMJE February 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date May 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 9, 2014)
Change from baseline in glucose control. [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
Fasting plasma glucose levels were taken after an overnight fast of at least 8 hours. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted after ingestion of a 75g oral dextrose solution with finger sticks at 30, 45, and 60 minutes from time 0. The following equation was used to calculate glucose area under the curve which was the metric utilized to ascertain changes in glucose control: [(Time 45 - Time 30) * ½ (OGTT 30 + OGTT 45)] + [(Time 60 - Time 45) * ½ (OGTT 60 + OGTT 45)]
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 9, 2014)
  • Change from baseline in peak aerobic capacity [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
    Modified Balke protocol
  • Change from baseline in sit and reach [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
    Eurofit protocol for sit and reach distance using flex tester box
  • Change from baseline in standing broad jump [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
    Eurofit protocol
  • Change from baseline in vertical jump [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
    Eurofit protocol
  • Change from baseline in pushups [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
    Eurofit protocol; completed on feet or knees
  • Change from baseline in situps [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
    Eurofit protocol
  • Change from baseline in 40 meter dash [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
    A handheld stopwatch was used to record time from the command "Go" until the participant crossed the line at 40 meters
  • Change from baseline in stork balance test [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 10 ]
  • Change from baseline in body composition [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 12 ]
    Dual X-ray absorptiometry scan was used to assess body fat percentage, lean body mass, and fat mass.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: July 9, 2014)
Time spent completing daily workouts [ Time Frame: 24 exercise sessions over 8 weeks ]
Time spent to complete each assigned daily workout was individually recorded for each participant
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Same as current
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE CrossFit Exercise to Improve Glucose Control for Overweight and Obese Adults
Official Title  ICMJE The Influence of a CrossFit Exercise Program on Glucose Control in Overweight and Obese Individuals
Brief Summary

The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in glucose control, fitness, and body composition between a standard aerobic and resistance exercise training program and a shorter-duration, high-intensity CrossFit training program in overweight and obese physically inactive adults.

Hypotheses:

  1. Both groups would improve glucose control, with the CrossFit group improving significantly more than the aerobic and resistance training group.
  2. Both groups would improve fitness, with the CrossFit group improving significantly more than the aerobic and resistance training group.
  3. Both groups would demonstrate decreases in body fat percentage and fat mass and increases in lean body mass, with the CrossFit group improving significantly more than the aerobic and resistance training group.
Detailed Description Overweight or obese participants will take part in an 8-week exercise intervention after clearance from a doctor, that is expected to improve glucose control, fitness (Eurofit and peak aerobic capacity), and body composition (body fat percentage, fat mass, and lean body mass). After stratification by age and body mass index, participants will be randomized to either a standard aerobic and resistance training exercise program or a relatively higher intensity, shorter duration CrossFit exercise program.
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Hyperglycemia
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Other: High-Intensity Functional Training
    Participants were instructed to work as hard as they could while maintaining safe technique and proper form to achieve as many reps or rounds as possible in the prescribed time frame. As HIFT participants became accustomed to specific movements, less time was dedicated to practicing movements and technique.
    Other Name: CrossFit
  • Other: Aerobic and Resistance Training
    The protocol was based upon current guidelines of 150 minutes moderate-intensity aerobic activity and 2 days of muscle strengthening per week.
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Active Comparator: Aerobic and Resistance Training
    Participants completed 24 exercise sessions based on current guidelines. Aerobic exercise (50 min) was performed on machines every session and resistance training (20 min) was performed on machines two sessions per week. Aerobic intensity was prescribed at 40-50% of heart rate reserve (HRR) Weeks 1-4 and 50-60% HRR Weeks 5-8. Resistance training was supervised by an ACE certified personal trainer. One-repetition maximums (1-RM) were assessed Week 1 (i.e., seated bicep curl, military press, seated lat pulldown, seated leg extension, triceps pulldown, bench press, reverse leg curl, seated leg press). For Weeks 2-3 participants completed, 3 sets of 15 reps at 50% 1-RM; Weeks 4-5, 3 sets of 12 reps at 60% 1-RM; Weeks 6-7, 3 sets of 10 reps at 70% 1-RM; Week 8, 3 sets of 8 reps at 75% 1-RM. Three sets of 15 unweighted crunches were completed each day. One minute of rest was taken between each set and each exercise.
    Intervention: Other: Aerobic and Resistance Training
  • Experimental: High-intensity functional training
    Participants completed a total of 24 sessions that were pre-programmed and led by a certified instructor (CrossFit Level 2), which lasted up to 60 minutes in duration. The first two class periods were structured as an introduction to common movements used in high-intensity functional training (HIFT; e.g., squats, deadlift, press, jerks, barbell, dumbbell, and medicine ball cleans, pullups, kettlebell swings, among others). No scheduled workouts were given on days 1 and 2. Beginning on day 3 each HIFT class consisted of 10-15 minutes of stretching and warmup, 10-20 minutes of instruction and practicing techniques and movements, and 5-30 minutes for the workout of the day, performed at vigorous intensity, relative to each person's ability and fitness level. All weights and movements were individually prescribed and recorded for each participant.
    Intervention: Other: High-Intensity Functional Training
Publications * Heinrich KM, Patel PM, O'Neal JL, Heinrich BS. High-intensity compared to moderate-intensity training for exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions: an intervention study. BMC Public Health. 2014 Aug 3;14:789. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-789.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 9, 2014)
23
Original Actual Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE May 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date May 2012   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • body mass index (BMI) of 25 - < 40, physically inactive (i.e., not participating in any structured exercise programs for the past 2 months and not exceeding 30 total minutes of physical activity per week)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • current smoker, pregnant, taking blood glucose altering medications, heart disease, type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol 200 mg/dL or higher
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT02185872
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE #6058
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Katie M. Heinrich, Kansas State University
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Kansas State University
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Katie M Heinrich, PhD Kansas State University
Study Director: Pratik Patel, MS, RD Kansas State University
PRS Account Kansas State University
Verification Date March 2015

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP