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The Effects of Lifting Light or Heavy Weights on Muscle Growth and Strength in Trained Young Men

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02139865
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 15, 2014
Last Update Posted : March 19, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
McMaster University

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE April 7, 2014
First Posted Date  ICMJE May 15, 2014
Last Update Posted Date March 19, 2018
Study Start Date  ICMJE May 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date December 2015   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 20, 2014)
Muscle Volume [ Time Frame: 0 weeks (baseline) and 12 weeks ]
Change from baseline at 12 weeks Measured via 4 compartment model
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 13, 2014)
  • Muscle Volume [ Time Frame: 0 weeks (baseline) and 12 weeks ]
    Change from baseline at 12 weeks Measured via 4 compartment model
  • muscle fibre cross sectional area [ Time Frame: 0 weeks (baseline) and 12 weeks ]
    Change from baseline at 12 weeks Measured from immunohistochemistry from muscle biopsy
  • Muscle Strength [ Time Frame: 0 weeks baseline) and 12 weeks ]
    Change from baseline at 12 weeks measured with 1RM rest of knee extensors, flexors, should and chest strength
  • Protein expression [ Time Frame: 0 weeks (baseline) and 12 weeks ]
    Change from baseline at 12 weeks measured with Expression (amount) and/or activity of key proteins related to the control of protein synthesis in the muscle measured via western blot from muscle biopsy.
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 20, 2014)
Gene expression [ Time Frame: 0 weeks (baseline) and 12 weeks ]
Change from baseline at 12 weeks . Gene expression for proteins involved in muscle protein synthesis measured from muscle biopsy.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 13, 2014)
  • Inflammation Levels [ Time Frame: 0 weeks (baseline) and 12 weeks ]
    Change from baseline at 12 weeks. Inflammatory markers and testosterone levels present in the acute blood time course following a bout of maximal resistance exercise.
  • Gene expression [ Time Frame: 0 weeks (baseline) and 12 weeks ]
    Change from baseline at 12 weeks . Gene expression for proteins involved in muscle protein synthesis measured from muscle biopsy.
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE The Effects of Lifting Light or Heavy Weights on Muscle Growth and Strength in Trained Young Men
Official Title  ICMJE The Effects of Resistance Training Intensity on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength in Young, Resistance Trained Men
Brief Summary

When practicing weightlifting regularly the body makes new proteins within the muscle.

These new proteins can increase the size of the cells within the muscle to make them larger, a process called hypertrophy. The common convention surrounding gains in skeletal muscle size and strength is that heavy weights are needed. In contrast, lifting lighter weights are thought to be required to induce muscular endurance and not to promote growth. However, it has previously been shown in untrained men that lifting lighter weights results in similar gains in muscle mass and strength as lifting heavier weights. The purpose of this study is to examine how performing resistance training of different intensities (light or heavy weights) affects the degree of muscle growth and strength gain in individuals who are already resistance training.

This information will be valuable when designing exercise protocols for increasing muscle size and strength at all ages, or in individuals returning from injury, as a way to stimulate muscle growth and promote strength gains without the need to lift heavy weights.

Detailed Description

Patients will visit the laboratory of Dr. Stuart Phillips at the Ivor Wynne Centre (IWC) at McMaster University for 14 weeks for a number of tests and exercise sessions.

Each visit will be as follows:

Visit 1:

Upon obtaining consent, eligible participants will complete a medical screening questionnaire to determine their readiness to perform exercise as well as a filling out a form to determine subject characteristics. Participants will begin collecting data for their first 3-day diet record. They will record their diet (2 weekdays and a weekend day) again at 6 weeks (mid-protocol) and at 12 weeks of the study.

Visit 2:

Participants will report the lab between 08.00 and 10.00 h to undergo body composition scans including BodPod (to assess fat mass), bioelectrical impedance (BIA - to assess your total body water content), and Dual-energy x-ray- Absorptiometry (DXA- to determine bone mineral content). All tests will be performed in the post-absorptive state (12 hours). Participants will also have a familiarization with the lab and exercise equipment to determine preliminary resistance training (RT) loads.

Visit 4:

Participants will report to the lab to determine their one-repetition-maximum on the leg press, leg extension, bench press and shoulder press. This will be done by having participants attempt a weight based on their familiarization session; if they can complete this weight though a full range of motion with good form, they will rest 3-5 min and then attempt a higher weight until their 1RM is reached.

Visit 5:

Participants will report to the lab in the post-absorptive state (12 hours) for a resting muscle biopsy from the muscle on the outside of their thigh.

Visits 6: Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two exercise intensity treatment groups: ~30% of 1RM (which equates to ~20-25 repetitions per set) for 3 sets to failure (25 subjects) or 80% of 1RM for 3 sets to failure (another 25 subjects). All sets will have 60 seconds of rest in between. On two occasions (one at the beginning of the study another at the end), participants will return to the lab in the post-absorptive state and a catheter (plastic tube with a small needle) will be inserted into a vein in your arm. A resting blood sample will be taken. Upon completion of their first exercise session, subsequent blood samples will be taken at 15 minutes, 30 minutes 60 minutes to determines an acute time course of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones.

Visit 7-54:

Participants will attend supervised exercise sessions 4 times per week (Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday) alternating lower body and upper body focused sessions for 12 weeks. Participants in the 30% (LOW) group will perform approximately 20-25 repetitions per set while participants in the 80% (HIGH) group will perform approximately 8-12 repetitions per set. Immediately following each resistance training session as well as prior to sleep, participants will consume 30g of whey protein. 1RM testing will be repeated every three weeks throughout the protocol and will be conducted prior to beginning the last of every 12 training sessions. Prior to completing their final training session (session number 48) participants will again arrive to the lab in the post-absorptive state for blood sampling procedure as described previously.

Visit 55:

Participants will arrive in the post absorptive (fasted) state 48 hours following their last training session. They will undergo a final BodPod, DEXA and BIA scan to determine body composition as well as a final resting biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Condition  ICMJE
  • Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy
  • Muscle Weakness
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Behavioral: 30% 1RM
    Participant exercises using a protocol tailored at 30% of their 1RM
  • Behavioral: 80% 1RM
    Participant exercises using a protocol tailored at 80% of their 1RM
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: 30%
    Training at 30% 1RM
    Intervention: Behavioral: 30% 1RM
  • Experimental: 80%
    Training at 80% 1RM
    Intervention: Behavioral: 80% 1RM
Publications * Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, McGlory C, Quadrilatero J, Baechler BL, Baker SK, Phillips SM. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016 Jul 1;121(1):129-38. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00154.2016. Epub 2016 May 12.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: May 13, 2014)
50
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE March 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date December 2015   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male
  • Aged 18-30 years old
  • Non-obese (Body mass index less than 30 kg/m2)
  • Non-smoker
  • Healthy based on questionnaire responses (see exclusion criteria)
  • Resistance trained (Resistance training > 2 times per week for 2 years, minimum 1 lower body exercise session per week)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Allergies to milk proteins (whey or casein)
  • Any acute or chronic illness, cardiac, pulmonary, liver, or kidney abnormalities, uncontrolled hypertension, insulin- or non-insulin dependent diabetes or other metabolic disorders-all ascertained through medical history screening questionnaires
  • Arthritic conditions
  • Individuals who consume any analgesic or anti-inflammatory drug(s), prescription or non- prescription, chronically will be excluded
  • A history of neuromuscular problems
  • Individuals on any medications known to affect protein metabolism (i.e. corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, or prescription strength acne medications).
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: Male
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 30 Years   (Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Canada
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT02139865
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE REB 14-333
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party McMaster University
Study Sponsor  ICMJE McMaster University
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Stuart Phillips, Ph.D. McMaster University
PRS Account McMaster University
Verification Date March 2016

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP