Interaction Effects of Temperature and Ozone (TROPICOZ)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01981135|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 11, 2013
Last Update Posted : February 10, 2015
|First Submitted Date ICMJE||October 22, 2013|
|First Posted Date ICMJE||November 11, 2013|
|Last Update Posted Date||February 10, 2015|
|Start Date ICMJE||September 2011|
|Primary Completion Date||March 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Current Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE
||Forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1) [ Time Frame: Pre exposure to 24hours post exposure ]
Forced expired volume in the first second (FEV1) is determined by spirometry performed on a dry seal spirometer interfaced to a computer.
|Original Primary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Same as current|
|Change History||Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01981135 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site|
|Current Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE
|Original Secondary Outcome Measures ICMJE||Same as current|
|Current Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Original Other Outcome Measures ICMJE||Not Provided|
|Brief Title ICMJE||Interaction Effects of Temperature and Ozone|
|Official Title ICMJE||Interaction Effects of Temperature and Ozone|
Purpose: The purpose of this protocol is to understand how individuals respond to the air pollutant ozone at elevated temperatures. Ultimately, this will help us understand what the risks from poor air quality are during a heat wave.
Participants: We will recruit up to 30 healthy adults, 18-55 years old, to participate in this study.
Procedures (methods): Subjects will be exposed to clean air and to 0.3 ppm of ozone for 2 hours with intermittent exercise in a controlled environment chamber. For each exposure the temperature in the chamber will be between 31-34oC (88-93 oF). Because the aim of the study is to mimic high exposure during a heat wave, we will perform exposures only on days when mean ambient temperatures was less than 24 oC in Chapel Hill on the previous day.
Primary endpoints will include spirometry and Heart Rate Variability monitoring. Secondary endpoints will include analysis of blood clotting/coagulation factors, and analysis of soluble factors present in plasma.
Over the past decades, air quality in the U.S. has improved significantly. Even so, millions of people in the U.S. still live in counties that do not meet air quality standards for one or more pollutants. Global climate change is widely accepted to be occurring and is thought to have a range of major and potentially adverse effects on the ecosystem. Additionally, changes in the climate can lead to higher concentrations of harmful air pollutants, and the presence of some air pollutants in the atmosphere can also accelerate climate change. Health effects are impacted by complex interactions between climate change and air quality. Research is needed to identify the public health consequences of these interactions. One aspect that has been understudied is how physiological responses to elevated temperature are impacted by the additional stressor of air pollution.
Several epidemiological studies have shown a strong link between exposure to air pollution and adverse cardiopulmonary effects, such as respiratory tract infections, exacerbation of asthma, chronic bronchitis, ischemic heart disease, and stroke [1-3]. Ozone is a major component of photochemical smog. Controlled human exposure studies have been critical in demonstrating that it can cause decrements in lung function [4-10] and lung inflammation.[11-13] The inflammation includes increased neutrophils and soluble pro-inflammatory mediators in the lower airways [14, 15].
The majority of these studies involved controlled exposures to relatively high (0.1 - 0.4ppm) concentrations for short periods of time (typically 2 hours). These short-term exposure studies are useful because a) they provide the strongest and most quantifiable exposure-response data and b) they allow the investigation of biological changes that in themselves are transient and inconsequential but can be extrapolated to predict health outcomes in susceptible populations or in long-term exposures. For example, healthy individuals exposed to 0.4ppm ozone exposure for 2hr  showed a13.5 % decrement in FEV1, often accompanied by only mild symptoms such as tracheobronchial irritation and cough. However, by 3hours after exposure, these symptoms had largely disappeared and only a 2.7% FEV1 decrement was detectable. By 24hrs, even at higher ozone concentrations the recovery phase has normally completed. The primary public health concern is in individuals with respiratory disease. If these same changes occurred in a person with reduced reserve, the ozone-induced changes would be superimposed on preexisting pulmonary impairment and may have significant health effects.
Despite almost 30 years of research into the effects of ozone, there are very few studies of the interaction between ozone and temperature. Although ozone is normally elevated when the weather is dry and hot, most controlled chamber studies are performed at moderate temperatures (70-75 oF). Those studies that addressed higher temperatures were generally performed in the run-up to the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984 and centered on impairment of exercise performance. For example, Gibbons and Adams studied ten aerobically trained young adult females exercised continuously at 66% of maximum O2 uptake for 1 h while exposed orally to filtered air and 0.15 and 0.30 ppm ozone in both moderate (24 degrees oC) and hot (35 degrees oC) ambient conditions and showed that subjects were more likely to cease exercising prematurely at hot temperatures. Gong studied elite cyclists and showed similar results. Folinsbee et al., studied the effects of a 2-h exposure to high level ozone (0.5 ppm) in 14 nonsmoking males under four environmental conditions (64.4, 80.0, 85.2, and 92.0 oF) and found that the greatest decrease in FVC occurred when ozone exposures were at the highest temperature.
Those cited studies have focused on respiratory outcomes. Yet it is becoming clear that ozone may have systemic and cardiac effects. Ozone reacts rapidly with respiratory tissues and is not absorbed or transported to extrapulmonary sites. However, recent studies have also shown associations between long-term ozone exposure and cardiovascular morbidity [20, 21]. In addition, short-term exposures to ozone may cause minor transient changes in high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy adults . Experimental studies have shown that heat stress can have a similar modest effect on this component of HRV.  The effect of the combination has not been studied to date. Epidemiology studies assessing the ozone-temperature-cardiac relationship have generally been uninformative since high ozone days normally occur during hot weather. Traditional methods are not suitable to discriminate between the effects of ozone and temperature, let alone their interaction. Those that have studied the relationship have shown a negative association between temperature and ozone-mortality due to increased use in air conditioning.  A very recent study, however, using novel approaches examined whether ozone modified the associations between temperature and cardiovascular mortality in 95 large communities in the USA, 1987-2000, in summer. They found that a 10oC increase in temperature on the same day was associated with an increase in mortality by 1.17% and 8.31% for the lowest and highest level of ozone concentrations in all communities, respectively.
The purpose of this study is to perform the first controlled chamber study in order to understand the cardiovascular changes resulting from the interaction between heat and ozone. The information obtained from this study will enable the EPA to evaluate better the risks from air pollutants during a heat wave and provide advice on activities to mitigate the effects.
|Study Type ICMJE||Interventional|
|Study Phase||Not Provided|
|Study Design ICMJE||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
|Condition ICMJE||Exposure to Environmental Pollution, Non-occupational|
|Publications *||Not Provided|
* Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
|Recruitment Status ICMJE||Completed|
|Completion Date||January 2015|
|Primary Completion Date||March 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Eligibility Criteria ICMJE||
|Ages||18 Years to 55 Years (Adult)|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers||Yes|
|Contacts ICMJE||Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects|
|Listed Location Countries ICMJE||United States|
|Removed Location Countries|
|NCT Number ICMJE||NCT01981135|
|Other Study ID Numbers ICMJE||#11-0772|
|Has Data Monitoring Committee||No|
|U.S. FDA-regulated Product||Not Provided|
|IPD Sharing Statement||Not Provided|
|Responsible Party||David Diaz-Sanchez, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)|
|Study Sponsor ICMJE||Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)|
|Collaborators ICMJE||Not Provided|
|PRS Account||Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)|
|Verification Date||February 2015|
ICMJE Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP