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Effect of Insulin Sensitizer Metformin on AD Biomarkers

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01965756
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 18, 2013
Results First Posted : September 21, 2017
Last Update Posted : September 21, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of Pennsylvania

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE October 16, 2013
First Posted Date  ICMJE October 18, 2013
Results First Submitted Date  ICMJE June 6, 2017
Results First Posted Date  ICMJE September 21, 2017
Last Update Posted Date September 21, 2017
Study Start Date  ICMJE January 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date December 22, 2015   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 21, 2017)
Word List Memory Total - ADAS-cog [ Time Frame: 16 weeks (total) - measured at baseline, week 8 (crossover), and week 16 ]
Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale- Cognitive Sub scale (ADAS-COG). Three trials of 10 words each (30 words total)
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 16, 2013)
Cognitive Biomarker Outcomes [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale- Cognitive Sub scale (ADAS-COG)
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 21, 2017)
Trails-B [ Time Frame: 16 weeks- measured at baseline, week 8 (crossover), and week 16 ]
Standard Trails-B assessment, in which subject is asked to begin at Number 1 and draw a line to Letter A, then to Number 2, then to Letter B, then so forth until he/she reaches the END, without lifting their pencil. They should draw the line as fast as possible, and are timed (in seconds).
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 16, 2013)
Neurophysiological Biomarker Outcome [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
Cogstate Computerized Psychometric Battery Dementia Severity Rating Scale
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: August 21, 2017)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid Beta Concentration [ Time Frame: baseline and 8 weeks ]
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Total Tau Concentration [ Time Frame: baseline and 8 weeks ]
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Phosphorylated Tau Concentration [ Time Frame: baseline and 8 weeks ]
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: October 16, 2013)
Biochemical Biomarker Outcome [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
Brain MRI (pCASL,MPRAGE and Flair) Lumbar Puncture for CSF
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Effect of Insulin Sensitizer Metformin on AD Biomarkers
Official Title  ICMJE A Phase II Trial to Study the Effect of Metformin on AD Biomarkers: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Crossover Pilot Study of Metformin Effects on Cognitive, Physiological and Biochemical Biomarkers of MCI and Dementia Due to AD
Brief Summary

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. It is the most common cause of dementia in older adults, affecting approximately 18 million people worldwide, including almost 500,000 in the Philadelphia tri-state area. After age 65, the incidence of AD rises exponentially, doubling every five years. By age 85, almost half of us will have AD. In 2030, as many as 7.7 million Americans could have AD, and by 2050 this number could rise to 11-16 million people. The annual cost of AD in the United States is about $200 billion. AD-related medical complications are among the most common causes of death in the elderly population. Despite these alarming statistics, a "cure" for AD may not be essential since delaying the onset of AD by just 5 years could have a profound impact on this disorder by reducing the incidence and cost of AD by 50% between now and 2050.

AD is difficult to recognize in its earliest stages, in which the principal complaint is typically an increase in episodes of forgetfulness. This stage is now commonly referred to as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Neuroimaging and CSF biomarkers have demonstrated good accuracy in predicting which MCI patients later "convert" to AD and which tend to remain stable or revert to more normal cognition. The diagnosis of AD itself is made when increased loss of memory and other cognitive abilities (eg, language, praxis, and executive function) affect daily functioning. As the symptoms of dementia inevitably worsen, patients may become incapable of even basic activities such as feeding and dressing themselves. The disease course often spans more than a decade, creating a vast social and financial burden on society and extracting an immeasurable emotional toll on family members.

Clinical and preclinical evidence is accumulating that brain insulin resistance may play a role in the pathogenesis and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease and that ameliorating insulin action in the brain may benefit cognition symptomatically and modify disease pathology.

Detailed Description Not Provided
Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Intervention Model Description:
This pilot study used a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 16 week crossover design to examine the effects of metformin on biochemical, neurophysiological, and cognitive biomarkers of AD.
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Vascular Dementia
  • Dementia
  • Memory Impairment
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Metformin
  • Drug: Placebos
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Metformin, Then Placebo
    Participants first received metformin for 8 weeks, according to the following dosing schedule: 500 mg by mouth daily for 1 week, then daily dose (in divided doses) increased by 500 mg per week until a maximum of 2000 mg/d (1000mg twice daily) was reached. After 8 weeks, subjects were switched to matching placebo for an additional 8 weeks.
    • Drug: Metformin
    • Drug: Placebos
  • Experimental: Placebo, Then Metformin
    Participants first received placebo for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, subjects were switched to metformin, according to the following dosing schedule: 500 mg by mouth daily for 1 week, then daily dose (in divided doses) increased by 500 mg per week until a maximum of 2000 mg/d (1000mg twice daily) was reached.
    • Drug: Metformin
    • Drug: Placebos
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 21, 2017)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: October 16, 2013)
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE April 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date December 22, 2015   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • • Ages 55-80.

    • 2 Sex distribution: male and female
    • Diagnosis of MCI due to AD127 or early dementia due to AD128 with: a) age 55 - 80, b) complaint of cognitive decline, c) abnormal performance on the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale, d) MMSE > 21, e) CDR 0.5-1, f) positive topographic (MRI, FDG-PET) or molecular (CSF, amyloid imaging) biomarker consistent with AD, and g) no history of diabetes or other exclusions.
    • Fluent in English or Spanish
    • Education >5, literate, and/or good working history that precludes consideration of mental retardation
    • Visual and auditory acuity sufficient for neuropsychological testing and auditory evoked potential EEG
    • Geriatric Depression Scale < 6
    • Modified Hachinski Ischemic Score < 4
    • No major health issues or diseases expected to interfere with the study
    • Willing to complete all baseline assessments and study procedures
    • Stable on all permitted medications for 8 weeks
    • Not pregnant, lactating or of child-bearing potential (women must be >2 years post-menopausal or surgically sterile)
    • No history of diabetes
    • Fasting blood glucose <126 and/or HgbA1c < 6.4
    • Study partner with frequent contact with patient willing to accompany patient to visits and complete partner study forms
    • No contraindication to metformin

Exclusion Criteria:

  • • Any CNS disease other than suspected incipient AD, such as clinical stroke, brain tumor, normal pressure hydrocephalus, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, significant head trauma with persistent neurological of cognitive deficits or complaints, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, or other neurodegenerative diseases

    • Screening/baseline MRI scans with evidence of infarction or other focal lesions in critical memory structures that may be related to cognitive dysfunction
    • Major active psychiatric illness (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia) within the previous year
    • History of alcohol or other substance abuse or dependence within the past two years
    • Pacemakers, aneurysm clips, artificial heart valves, ear implants, metal fragments or foreign objects in the eyes, skin or body or claustrophobia that would preclude MRI scanning
    • History of past or current diabetes, pancreatic or liver disease, renal disease
    • Any significant systemic illness or unstable medical condition that could affect compliance with study
    • Laboratory abnormalities in B12, TFTs, RPR, Lyme or other common lab parameters that might contribute to cognition or participation in study
    • Coagulopathy or anti-coagulant therapy (such as coumadin) increasing the risk for LP resulting in PT/PTT and INR within 1.5 standard deviations over the upper normal limit.
    • Compromised renal function at screening as determined by creatinine clearance <30mL/min based on Cockcroft-Gault calculation
    • Liver dysfunction at screening as evidenced by alanine transaminase (ALT/SGPT) values > 2X upper limit of normal or aspartate transaminase (AST/SGOT) values > 3X or total bilirubin > 2X.
    • Has received acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and/or memantine and/or any other medicine that affects the central nervous system for less than 4 months or has less than 2 months stable therapy on these treatments by baseline visit.
    • Current use of specified medications with psychoactive properties that deleteriously affect cognition (e.g., certain antidepressants, anticholinergics, anti-histamines, antipsychotics, sedative hypnotics, anxiolytics)
    • Use of investigational agents one month prior to entry and for the duration of the trial
    • Exceptions to these guidelines may be considered on a case-by-case basis at the discretion of the protocol director.
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 55 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01965756
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE UPenn-AHAF_A2012116
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party University of Pennsylvania
Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Pennsylvania
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Steven E Arnold, MD University of Pennsylvania
PRS Account University of Pennsylvania
Verification Date August 2017

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP