ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Safety and Effectiveness of Low-Dose Methotrexate for Reducing Inflammation in HIV-Infected Adults on ARV Medications

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01949116
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 24, 2013
Results First Posted : January 10, 2018
Last Update Posted : January 10, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

September 19, 2013
September 24, 2013
December 4, 2017
January 10, 2018
January 10, 2018
January 31, 2014
December 8, 2016   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
  • Number of Participants Who Reached at Least One Safety Milestone Over the Duration of Study Follow-up (36 Weeks) [ Time Frame: From study entry to week 36 ]

    Number of participants who experienced any one of the following safety milestones:

    • Entry CD4+ T-cell count less than 700 cells/mm^3, confirmed CD4+ decline greater than 33% of baseline AND to less than 350 cells/mm^3
    • Entry CD4+ T-cell count greater than or equal to 700 cells/mm^3, a confirmed CD4+ decline greater than 50% of baseline
    • Confirmed HIV-1 RNA Level Greater Than 200 Copies/mL in the Absence of an Interruption in ART
    • New or recurrent CDC category C AIDS-indicator condition
    • Evidence of HIV-associated infection including CMV end-organ disease, varicella zoster, EBV related clinical disease
    • Requirement for LDMTX discontinuation for confirmed Grade 3 or higher toxicity
    • Lymphoproliferative malignancies
    • Pulmonary toxicity which is defined as Grade 3 or 4 dyspnea, cough, shortness of breath which in the opinion of the local investigator is related to the study drug but not related to other clinical causes such as asthma, influenza, etc.
  • Primary Efficacy Endpoint of Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Brachial Artery Flow-mediated Vasodilation (FMD) [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    Flow-mediated vasodilation is defined as the maximum FMD (%) calculated from reactive hyperemia (RH) 60 and RH 90 relative to resting artery diameter. Absolute change of FMD at week 24 is calculated from baseline FMD.
  • For participants with entry CD4 T-cell count less than 700 cells/mm^3: confirmed CD4 decline greater than 33% of baseline AND to less than 350 cells/mm^3 [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
  • For participants with entry CD4 T-cell count greater than or equal to 700 cells/mm^3: confirmed CD4 decline greater than 50% of baseline [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
  • Confirmed HIV-1 RNA level greater than 200 copies/mL in the absence of an interruption in ART [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
  • New or recurrent Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) category C AIDS-indicator condition [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
  • Evidence of HIV-associated infection, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease, varicella zoster, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related clinical disease [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
  • Requirement for LDMTX discontinuation for confirmed Grade 3 or higher toxicity [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
  • Lymphoproliferative malignancies [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
  • Pulmonary toxicity [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 36 ]
    Defined as Grade 3 or 4 dyspnea, cough, shortness of breath, which in the opinion of the local investigator, is related to the study drug but not related to other clinical causes such as asthma, influenza, etc.
  • Change from baseline to Week 24 in brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) (%) [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 24 ]
    Defined as the maximum FMD (%) calculated from reactive hyperemia (RH) 60 and RH 90 relative to resting artery diameter (baseline).
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01949116 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Change From Baseline to Week 12 in Brachial Artery FMD [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 12 ]
    The absolute change from baseline to week 24 FMD (%), defined as the maximum FMD calculated from reactive hyperemia (RH) 60 and RH 90 relative to resting artery diameter.
  • Change From Baseline to Week 12 in Brachial Artery Resting Average Diameter [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 12 ]
    The change in resting average diameter in millimeters of the brachial artery at week 12 from baseline.
  • Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Brachial Artery Resting Average Diameter [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The absolute change in resting average diameter in millimeters of the brachial artery at week 24 from baseline.
  • Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Reactive Hyperemic (RH) Flow Rate [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The absolute change in RH flow rate in cc/min of the brachial artery at week 24 from baseline.
  • Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Peak Reactive Hyperemic (RH) Flow Velocity [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The absolute change in peak RH flow velocity in cm/s of the brachial artery at week 24 from baseline.
  • Percentage Change From Baseline to Week 24 in High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP) [ Time Frame: From Baseline to week 24 ]
    hsCRP is a marker of inflammation. Change from baseline (Week 24 - baseline) was performed on the log10 scale and is thus presented as percentage change, i.e. (10^[fold-change] - 1) x 100%. One single hsCRP result at week 24 was above the limit of quantification, therefore excluded from analysis.
  • Percentage Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Interleukin-6 (IL-6) [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    IL-6 is a marker of systemic inflammation. Change from baseline (Week 24 - baseline) was performed on the log10 scale and is thus presented as percentage change, i.e. (10^[fold-change] - 1) x 100%.
  • Percentage Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Soluble CD 163 (sCD163) [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    sCD163 is a marker of Macrophage activation. Change from baseline (Week 24 - baseline) was performed on the log10 scale and is thus presented as percentage change, i.e. (10^[fold-change] - 1) x 100%.
  • Percentage Change From Baseline to Week 24 in D-Dimer [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    D-dimer (or D dimer) is a marker of coagulation activation. Change from baseline (Week 24 - baseline) was performed on the log10 scale and is thus presented as percentage change, i.e. (10^[fold-change] - 1) x 100%.
  • Absolute Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Monocyte Levels [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    Three categories of monocyte levels are presented: classical (CD14+CD16-), intermediate (CD14+CD16+), and non-classical (CD14dimCD16+). Absolute change from baseline (Week 24 - baseline) was analyzed on the measured scale, which is the percent of parent cells that express the subset of interest.
  • Absolute Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Adhesion and Activation Indices [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    The adhesion and activation indices of interest are the percentages of CD38+HLADR+ expressions in both parent CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Absolute change from baseline (Week 24 - baseline) was analyzed on the measured scale, which is the percent of parent cells (either CD4+ or CD8+) that express CD38+HLADR+ cells.
  • Absolute Change From Baseline to Week 24 in Homing Molecule (CX3CR1+) Expression [ Time Frame: From Baseline to Week 24 ]
    CX3CR1+ is a cellular marker of immune activation. The outcome measured is the percentages of CX3CR1+ expressions in both parent CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Absolute change from baseline (Week 24 - baseline) was analyzed on the measured scale, which is the percent of parent cells (either CD4+ or CD8+) that express CX3CR1+ cells.
  • Change from baseline to Week 12 in brachial artery FMD (%) [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 12 ]
  • Change from baseline to Week 12 in brachial artery diameter (mm) [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 12 ]
  • Change from baseline to Week 24 in brachial artery diameter (mm) [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 24 ]
  • Change from baseline to Week 24 in brachial artery hyperemic flow velocity (time-integrated, cm) [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 24 ]
  • Changes from baseline to Week 24 in levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), sCD163, and D-dimer [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 24 ]
  • Change from baseline to Week 24 in monocyte levels, adhesion and activation indices, and CX3CR1 expression [ Time Frame: Measured through Week 24 ]
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Safety and Effectiveness of Low-Dose Methotrexate for Reducing Inflammation in HIV-Infected Adults on ARV Medications
Effect of Reducing Inflammation With Low Dose Methotrexate on Inflammatory Markers and Endothelial Function in Treated and Suppressed HIV Infection
People with HIV infection who are taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) could be at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), which can be caused by inflammation. Methotrexate (MTX) is a medication used to treat inflammation in people with rheumatoid arthritis. This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of low-dose methotrexate (LDMTX) at reducing inflammation in HIV-infected adults.

HIV-infected people taking ART have a higher than expected risk of premature CVD. Many factors likely contribute to this risk, including chronic inflammation. Strategies to reduce inflammation in HIV-infected people may be beneficial in reducing CVD risk, as well as other conditions, including kidney disease, bone disease, and neurologic complications. MTX is an anti-inflammatory medication used to treat people with rheumatoid arthritis. This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of LDMTX at treating inflammation and on endothelial function in virologically suppressed HIV-infected adults who had CVD or were at increased risk of CVD.

The total study duration was 36 weeks. Prior to enrolling in the study, participants had a chest X-ray. Participants were randomly assigned to receive LDMTX or placebo for 24 weeks. Participants continued taking their antiretroviral (ARV) medications as usual; ARVs were not provided by the study. At study entry, participants underwent a medical and medication history, physical examination, blood collection, and adherence assessments. From study entry through Week 1, participants received either 5 mg of LDMTX or placebo once a week. For participants who were clinically stable at the Week 1 study visit, the dose of LDMTX or placebo was increased to 10 mg once a week through Week 12. For participants who were clinically stable at the Week 12 study visit, the dose of LDMTX or placebo was increased to 15 mg once a week through Week 24. Participants who did not meet the criteria for dose escalation were re-evaluated at the following study visit. In addition to LDMTX or placebo, all participants also received 1 mg of folic acid once a day from study entry throughout Week 24. After taking the final dose of LDMTX or placebo, all participants continued taking folic acid for an additional 4 weeks.

Post-entry visits occurred at Weeks 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36. These included a physical examination, blood collection, and adherence assessments; an arm ultrasound test was performed at Weeks 12 and 24. At Week 2, some participants took part in a pharmacokinetic (PK) assessment, which involved undergoing a blood collection several times over a 6-hour period.

Interventional
Phase 2
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
HIV Infections
  • Drug: LDMTX

    LDMTX 5 mg: one 5-mg capsule by mouth once weekly

    LDMTX 10 mg: two 5-mg capsules by mouth once weekly

    LDMTX 15 mg: three 5-mg capsules by mouth once weekly

    Other Name: Low-Dose Methotrexate
  • Drug: Placebo

    Placebo 5 mg: one 5-mg capsule by mouth once weekly

    Placebo 10 mg: two 5-mg capsules by mouth once weekly

    Placebo 15 mg: three 5-mg capsules by mouth once weekly

    Other Name: Placebo for Low-Dose Methotrexate
  • Dietary Supplement: Folic acid
    1-mg tablet of folic acid by mouth once a day
  • Experimental: Low-dose methotrexate (LDMTX)
    From study entry through Week 1, participants received 5 mg of LDMTX once a week. For participants who were clinically stable at the Week 1 study visit, the dose of LDMTX was increased to 10 mg once a week through Week 12. For participants who were clinically stable at the Week 12 study visit, the dose of LDMTX was increased to 15 mg once a week through Week 24. Participants who did not meet the criteria for dose escalation were re-evaluated at the following study visit. In addition to LDMTX, all participants also received 1 mg of folic acid once a day from study entry throughout Week 24. After taking the final dose of LDMTX, all participants continued taking folic acid for an additional 4 weeks.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: LDMTX
    • Dietary Supplement: Folic acid
  • Placebo Comparator: Placebo
    From study entry through Week 1, participants received 5 mg of placebo once a week. For participants who were clinically stable at the Week 1 study visit, the dose of placebo was increased to 10 mg once a week through Week 12. For participants who were clinically stable at the Week 12 study visit, the dose of placebo was increased to 15 mg once a week through Week 24. Participants who did not meet the criteria for dose escalation were re-evaluated at the following study visit. In addition to placebo, all participants also received 1 mg of folic acid once a day from study entry throughout Week 24. After taking the final dose of placebo, all participants continued taking folic acid for an additional 4 weeks.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Placebo
    • Dietary Supplement: Folic acid
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
176
200
December 8, 2016
December 8, 2016   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV-1 infection, documented by any licensed rapid HIV test or HIV enzyme or chemiluminescence immunoassay (E/CIA) test kit at any time prior to study entry and confirmed by a licensed Western blot or a second antibody test by a method other than the initial rapid HIV and/or E/CIA, or by HIV-1 antigen, plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load.
  • Had to be on continuous ART for greater than or equal to 24 weeks prior to study entry. This was defined as continuous active therapy for the 24-week period prior to study entry with no treatment interruption longer than 7 consecutive days and a total duration off treatment of no more than 14 days in the 90 days prior to study entry.
  • CD4 T-cell count greater than or equal to 400 cells/mm^3 obtained within 60 days prior to study entry by any U.S. laboratory that has a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) certification or its equivalent
  • HIV-1 RNA level below the limit of quantification using a FDA-approved assay for at least 24 weeks prior to study entry and confirmed within 60 days prior to study entry. The assay used for eligibility could be performed by any U.S. laboratory that had a CLIA certification or its equivalent. NOTE: Single determinations that are between the assay quantification limit and 200 copies/mL were allowed as long as the preceding and subsequent determinations are below the level of quantification.
  • The following laboratory values obtained within 60 days prior to study entry by any U.S. laboratory that has a CLIA certification or its equivalent:

    1. Fasting glucose less than 180 mg/dL
    2. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)] less than 2 times the upper limit of normal (ULN)
    3. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] less than 2 times the ULN
    4. Estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than or equal to 50 mL/min by Cockcroft-Gault. NOTE: Candidates who were taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as part of their ART regimen should have an estimated CrCl greater than or equal to 60 mL/min.
    5. White blood cell (WBC) greater than 3,000/mm^3
    6. Hemoglobin greater than 12.0 g/dL
    7. Platelets greater than 150,000/mm^3
  • Female candidates who were postmenopausal (i.e., of non-childbearing potential) were defined as having either:

    1. Appropriate medical documentation of prior hysterectomy and/or complete bilateral oophorectomy (i.e., surgical removal of the ovaries, resulting in "surgical menopause" and occurring at the age at which the procedure was performed), OR
    2. Permanent cessation of previously occurring menses as a result of ovarian failure with documentation of hormonal deficiency by a certified healthcare provider (i.e., "spontaneous menopause").
  • Male candidates must agree not to participate in a conception process (i.e., active attempt to impregnate, sperm donation). If participating in sexual activity that could lead to pregnancy, the male participant must agree to the use of TWO reliable forms of contraceptives simultaneously while on study and for a minimum of 3 months after therapy.
  • Candidates who were not of reproductive potential (defined as women who have been postmenopausal for at least 24 consecutive months or men who have documented vasectomy) were eligible for the study without requiring the use of contraceptives.
  • Moderate or high CVD risk defined as:

A) Documented CVD as assessed by meeting at least 1 of 3 criteria below:

  1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): prior myocardial infarction (MI) due to atherosclerosis, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, or angiographic CAD with luminal diameter stenosis of at least one coronary artery at least 50%.
  2. Cerebrovascular disease: prior ischemic stroke of carotid origin, carotid endarterectomy or stenting, or angiographic carotid stenosis of at least 50%.
  3. Peripheral arterial disease: prior lower extremity arterial surgical or percutaneous revascularization procedure, or angiographic lower extremity arterial stenosis of at least 50%.

OR

B) Controlled type II diabetes mellitus (HbA1C less than or equal to 8.0% within the past 90 days prior to study entry, regardless of use of medications)

OR

C) Any one of the following CVD risk factors below:

  1. Current smoking: self-report of smoking at least a half a pack of cigarettes a day, on average, in the past month.
  2. Hypertension (HTN): two consecutive blood pressure (BP) readings with either systolic greater than 140 mm Hg or diastolic greater than 90 mm Hg; or on antihypertensive medications.
  3. Dyslipidemia: defined as non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C greater than 160 mg/dL or HDL-C less than or equal to 40 mg/dL, regardless of medication use.
  4. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) greater than or equal to 2 mg/L at screening

Ability and willingness of candidate to provide informed consent

  • Completion of the Flow-mediated Vasodilation (FMD) assessments. NOTE: The FMD must be performed at the site and confirmed as acceptable by the University of Wisconsin Atherosclerosis Imaging Research Program (UW AIRP) core lab prior to study entry. If the FMD is deemed unacceptable, a repeat scan must be performed prior to enrollment.
  • Appropriate documentation from medical records of prior receipt of pneumococcal vaccination (with both the 13-valent conjugant vaccine [PCV13] and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [PPV23]) within the last 5 years. If no documentation is available, then the PCV13 and PPV23 series (PCV13 vaccine followed by PPV23 vaccine at least 8 weeks later) should be completed more than 14 days prior to study entry.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Acute or serious illness requiring systemic treatment and/or hospitalization within 60 days prior to study entry. NOTE: Treatment should have ended at least 60 days prior to study entry for eligibility.
  • Documentation of any CDC category C AIDS-indicator condition or oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush) within 90 days prior to study entry
  • Receipt of antibiotic therapy within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (defined as a positive purified protein derivative [PPD] greater than or equal to 5 mm, positive interferon-gamma release assay, or positive T-spot test at any time in the past) or evidence of latent TB on the screening chest x-ray that had not been completely treated or was treated within the past 6 months prior to study entry
  • TB disease that required treatment within 48 weeks prior to study entry
  • Life-threatening fungal infection requiring treatment, in the opinion of the site investigator, within 48 weeks prior to study entry
  • Herpes-zoster viral infection that required treatment within 90 days prior to study entry
  • A history of or current, active hepatitis B infection defined as positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test or positive hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in candidates with isolated hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) positivity, defined as negative HBsAg, negative hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb), and positive HBcAb within 24 weeks prior to study entry. NOTE: Candidates who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen but who were HBV DNA negative were permitted in the study.
  • Chronic hepatitis C infection defined as a positive hepatitis C antibody and positive hepatitis C RNA at any time prior to study entry. NOTE: Candidates who were positive for hepatitis C antibody but whowerehepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA negative are permitted in the study. Candidates who had been treated for hepatitis C should be HCV RNA negative for at least 24 weeks after completion of therapy to be eligible for the study.
  • Previously diagnosed myelodysplasia syndrome
  • Treated lymphoproliferative disease less than or equal to 5 years prior to study entry
  • Clinically significant lung disease on the screening chest x-ray that, in the opinion of the site investigator, places the candidate at increased risk of lung toxicity (e.g., history of pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, or pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease)
  • Use of immunomodulators (e.g., interleukins, interferons, cyclosporine), HIV vaccine, systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy, or investigational therapy within 30 days prior to study entry
  • Change in the ART regimen in the 12 weeks prior to study entry or intended modification of ART during the study. NOTE: Modifications of ART doses during the 12 weeks prior to study entry were permitted. In addition, the change in formulation (e.g., from standard formulation to fixed-dose combination) was allowed within 12 weeks prior to study entry. A within class single drug substitution (e.g., switch from nevirapine to efavirenz or from atazanavir to darunavir) is allowed within 12 weeks prior to study entry, with the exception of a switch from any other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) to abacavir. No other changes in ART in the 12 weeks prior to study entry were permitted.
  • Known allergy/sensitivity or any hypersensitivity to components of study drug(s) or their formulation
  • Average daily consumption of three or more alcoholic beverages for 4 weeks prior to study entry or intention to consume an average of two or more alcoholic beverages a day during the study. NOTE: An alcohol-containing beverage is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 4 ounces of wine, or 1 ounce of spirits.
  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements
  • Changes in lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medication within 90 days prior to study entry or expected need to modify these medications during the study. NOTE: Lipid-lowering medication includes: statins, fibrates, niacin (dose greater than or equal to 250 mg daily), and fish-oil/omega 3 fatty acids (dose greater than 1000 mg of marine oils daily).
  • Vaccination (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide) within 14 days prior to study entry
  • Anticipated need to receive vaccination (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide) within 1 week prior to Week 4, 12, 24, or 36 study visits
  • Excess extracompartmental fluids including ascites, pericardial fluid, and pleural effusions which, in the opinion of the study investigators, would result in difficulty in monitoring the dose of MTX
  • Use of drugs that alter folic acid metabolism such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or reduce tubular excretion such as probenecid within 14 days prior to study entry
  • New York Heart Association Class IV congestive heart failure
  • Diabetes mellitus with HbA1C greater than 8.0% within the past 90 days prior to study entry
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
40 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
Puerto Rico
 
NCT01949116
A5314
11875 ( Registry Identifier: DAIDS-ES )
Yes
Not Provided
Not Provided
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Not Provided
Study Chair: Priscilla Hsue, MD San Francisco General Hospital
Study Chair: Judith Currier, MD, MSc University of California, Los Angeles
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
January 2018

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP