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Vein of Marshall Ethanol Infusion for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (VOM-R01)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01898221
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : July 12, 2013
Last Update Posted : August 28, 2019
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
The Methodist Hospital System
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Miguel X. Valderrabano, MD, The Methodist Hospital System

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE May 28, 2013
First Posted Date  ICMJE July 12, 2013
Last Update Posted Date August 28, 2019
Study Start Date  ICMJE October 2013
Estimated Primary Completion Date December 2019   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 10, 2013)
Vein Of Marshal (VOM) [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
Primary Endpoints: Freedom from symptomatic AF or flutter after the 3-month blanking period AND reduction of AF/flutter to less than 1 min/day in a continuous 4-week EKG monitor between 6-12 months.
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 10, 2013)
Clinical success [ Time Frame: 12 month ]
Freedom from symptomatic AF/flutter but AF/flutter > 1 min/day < than 1% between 6 and 12 months.
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Not Provided
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Vein of Marshall Ethanol Infusion for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation
Official Title  ICMJE Vein of Marshall Ethanol Infusion for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation
Brief Summary

The broad, long-term objective of this project is to evaluate the therapeutic value of vein of Marshall (VOM) ethanol infusion when added to catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults, and it is a leading cause of stroke, disability and increased mortality. Catheter ablation - pulmonary vein (PV) antral isolation (PVAI)- can lead to cure, but is best suited for paroxysmal AF, in which ectopic beats arising from the pulmonary veins were shown to initiate AF. PVAI success is lower in persistent AF, in which the role of the cardiac autonomic system, particularly the intrinsic cardiac ganglia, is being increasingly recognized. Expanding the ablation lesions to include greater areas the left atrial (LA) anatomy marginally improves outcomes, but also leads to increases in procedural complexity and duration, need of repeat procedures, and complications such as atrial flutters, particularly perimitral flutter (PMF). The investigators have developed a technique to perform rapid ablation of atrial tissues in AF using ethanol infusion in the vein of Marshall (VOM), and have shown: 1) Effective, rapid and safe tissue ablation of LA tissue neighboring the LA ridge and left inferior PV; 2) Regional LA vagal denervation by reaching the intrinsic cardiac ganglia; and 3) Facilitation of cure of PMF by ablating most of the mitral isthmus.

The investigators propose to evaluate outcomes differences yielded by VOM ethanol when added to conventional PVAI. The specific aims are: #1.To assesses the impact of VOM ethanol infusion in procedure success when added to de novo catheter ablation of persistent AF. The investigators will randomize patients with persistent AF undergoing a first AF ablation to standard PVAI vs. a combined VOM ethanol infusion plus PVAI (VOM-PV) #2. To assess the impact of VOM ethanol infusion added to repeat catheter ablation of recurrent AF after a failed ablation. Patients undergoing a repeat procedure for persistent AF after a failed PVAI will be randomized to either PVAI or VOM-PV as their repeat procedure. End points will include freedom from symptomatic or electrocardiographic AF after 12-15 months.

Detailed Description

Although the risk of stroke is comparable in persistent and paroxysmal AF, the prevalence of persistent AF increases dramatically with increasing age, and thus is an overall more significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, there are currently an estimated 3.0 million adults with AF, and this number is expected to double in the next 25 years. Hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of AF are close to half a million per year, which generates a tremendous economic burden on the health care system. When compared to health care costs of non-AF control subjects, patients with AF have greater annual healthcare costs (up to $8705 total annual incremental cost). On the basis of current prevalence data, it is estimated that AF leads to a national incremental health care cost of up to $26 billion. Inadequacy of pharmacological treatment options for persistent AF Management strategies are directed at heart rate control and stroke prevention -mere palliation- or at rhythm control. It has been shown that rhythm control strategies using antiarrhythmic drugs offer no benefit in elderly patients or patients with heart failure. Most of the lack of benefit of such rhythm control strategy is thought to be due to the adverse effects and suboptimal efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs that can potentially augment mortality. Indeed, preservation of normal sinus rhythm is associated with decreased mortality. Dronedarone, the only antiarrhythmic drug shown to improve outcomes in nonpermanent AF compared to placebo, has been shown to double mortality, stroke and hospitalization for heart failure in the PALLAS study in patients with permanent. Thus, antiarrhythmic drugs remain suboptimal at best for the treatment of AF.

Shortcomings of catheter ablation of persistent AF Weak mechanistic rationale: Isolation of the pulmonary vein (PVs2) and adjacent LA (PV antrum) is the accepted procedural endpoint, based on the mechanistic concept that atrial extrasystoles arising from the PVs initiate paroxysmal AF. Other, non-PV triggers have been demonstrated.36 The link between PV extra systoles and AF is clear in paroxysmal AF, but not in persistent AF, in which the mechanisms of AF seem to be related more to a chronic atrial substrate than to acute triggers.4 Indeed, intramural reentry in the posterior LA seems to be particularly relevant in chronic models of AF. In persistent AF, the procedure has evolved, rather simplistically, to include additional lesions -besides isolation of the PVs, variably placed in the posterior wall, LA roof, and towards the mitral annulus, the superior vena cava,44 left atrial appendage, and other areas where complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) may be mapped. This brute force approach of simply destroying more tissue has yielded additional success, but new procedural targets with solid mechanistic bases are needed.

Suboptimal success and need for repeat procedures. Despite the additional tissue destruction, ablation success in persistent AF is with much lower than in paroxysmal AF, with single procedure success reported as low as 27%, 36%, or 49%, but up to 61% or 67%, depending on study heterogeneities in: definitions of persistent AF and of recurrence of AF, the type of AF monitoring, and ablation technique and operator experience. In order to achieve overall acceptable success rates, (which can reach up to 79%-94%), there is a consistent need for repeat procedures (sometimes up to 4) and the concomitant use of antiarrhythmic drugs. The rate of repeat procedures in experienced centers can reach up to 70 to 80%.PMF after catheter ablation of persistent AF. Clinical failures of a first ablation procedure are caused, in a significant portion of patients, by atrial flutters, rather than recurrent AF, and recurrence as flutter portends a greater chance of success in a second procedure. Such atrial flutters may be caused by perimitral reentry in up to 33-60% of the patients. Catheter ablation of PMF involves the creation of a linear lesion from the mitral annulus to the left inferior PV (the so-called mitral isthmus).Achieving a complete ablation (defined by bidirectional conduction block across the ablation line) can be very difficult, with success rates reported as 32%, 64%, or 71%. It sometimes requires ablation inside the coronary sinus (CS), in close proximity to the circumflex coronary artery, which could be damaged of note, incomplete ablation of the mitral isthmus is proarrhythmogenic, increasing the risk of recurrent flutter by up to 4 times.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Phase 2
Phase 3
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE
  • Ventricular Tachycardia
  • Atrial Fibrillation
Intervention  ICMJE
  • Drug: Ethanol
    We enter the CS with a sheath advanced from the right internal jugular vein. A sub-selector catheter with a ~90° angle at the tip (typically, a left internal mammary artery angioplasty guide catheter) is advanced through the CS sheath with its tip pointing superiorly and posteriorly.
    Other Name: Alcohol
  • Procedure: Ablation
    The doctor will perform only the standard procedure. Throughout the procedure, the researchers will document the following information for ALL patients: measurements such as whether the treatment was successful or unsuccessful, X-ray exposure time, procedure time, whether there were any complications, and other general procedural measurements.
    Other Name: standard catheter ablation procedure,
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Active Comparator: Standard Catheter Ablation Patient Group
    Patients will have a standard procedure ablation
    Intervention: Procedure: Ablation
  • Active Comparator: Vein of Marshall and Standar procedure
    The doctor will inject Ethanol through a balloon catheter into the VOM
    Intervention: Drug: Ethanol
Publications * Dave AS, Báez-Escudero JL, Sasaridis C, Hong TE, Rami T, Valderrábano M. Role of the vein of Marshall in atrial fibrillation recurrences after catheter ablation: therapeutic effect of ethanol infusion. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 Jun;23(6):583-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2011.02268.x. Epub 2012 Mar 19.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Active, not recruiting
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: August 20, 2018)
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: July 10, 2013)
Estimated Study Completion Date  ICMJE December 2020
Estimated Primary Completion Date December 2019   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients between the ages of 21 and 85 years
  2. Diagnosed with symptomatic persistent AF Documentation of history of AF for at least 6 months AF not spontaneously converting to sinus rhythm, persisting for ≥7 days Sinus rhythm after cardioversion is NOT exclusion, provided that≥2 episodes of persistent AF occurred in the previous 6 months
  3. Resistant or intolerant to at least one class I, II, or III anti arrhythmic drugs (AAD)
  4. Patients deemed candidates for radio frequency(RF) ablation of AF
  5. Able and willing to comply with pre-, post-, and follow-up requirements.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients with previous PVAI procedure or left heart ablation procedure.
  2. Left atrial thrombus.
  3. LA diameter greater than 65 mm on long axis parasternal view, or left atrial volume more than 200 cc by MRI or CT.
  4. Left ventricular ejection fraction < 30%.
  5. Cardiac surgery within the previous 180 days.
  6. Expecting cardiac transplantation or other cardiac surgery within 180 days.
  7. Coronary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)/stenting within the previous 90 days.
  8. Documented history of a thrombi-embolic event within the previous 90 days.
  9. Diagnosed atrial myxoma.
  10. Significant restrictive, constrictive, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with chronic symptoms.
  11. Significant congenital anomaly or medical problem that in the opinion of the investigator would preclude enrollment
  12. Women who are pregnant.
  13. Acute illness or active infection at time of index procedure documented by either pain, fever, drainage, positive culture and/or leukocytosis (WBC > 11. 000 mm3) for which antibiotics have been or will be prescribed.
  14. Creatinine> 2. 5 mg/dl (or > 221 μmol/L, except for patients in dialysis).
  15. Unstable angina.
  16. Myocardial infarction within the previous 60 days.
  17. History of blood clotting or bleeding abnormalities.
  18. Contraindication to anticoagulation.
  19. Contraindication to computed tomography or MRI procedures.
  20. Life expectancy less than 1 year.
  21. Uncontrolled heart failure.
  22. Presence of an intramural thrombus, tumor, or other abnormality that precludes catheter introduction or positioning.
  23. Presence of a condition that precludes vascular access.
  24. Institute for Natural Resources (INR) greater than 3. 5 within 24 hours of procedure.
  25. Cannot be removed from antiarrhythmic drugs for reasons other than AF.
  26. Unwilling or unable to provide informed consent.
  27. Current reported alcoholism.


Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 18 Years to 85 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE No
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01898221
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE Pro00008380
1R01HL115003-01A1 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Has Data Monitoring Committee Yes
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE
Plan to Share IPD: No
Plan Description: Individual participant data is not planned for sharing at this time.
Responsible Party Miguel X. Valderrabano, MD, The Methodist Hospital System
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Miguel X. Valderrabano, MD
Collaborators  ICMJE
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
  • The Methodist Hospital System
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Miguel Valderrabano, MD The Methodist Hospital System
PRS Account The Methodist Hospital System
Verification Date August 2019

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP