Efficacy and Safety of a Glargine-based Hospital Discharge Algorithm in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Patients (CABG-D/C)

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Guillermo Umpierrez, Emory University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01792830
First received: August 14, 2012
Last updated: September 29, 2015
Last verified: September 2015

August 14, 2012
September 29, 2015
October 2012
February 2014   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Efficacy, Measured by a Change in HbA1c Levels [ Time Frame: Hospital discharge, 1 month ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
Change in the level of HbA1c in a 1 month period after discharge from the hospital. The A1c test result is reported as a percentage. Higher percentages indicate higher blood glucose levels in the previous three months. A normal HbA1c level is below 5.7 percent.
  • blood glucose [ Time Frame: during 3 months following hospitalization ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in daily mean fasting blood glucose and premeal blood glucose in a 3 month period after discharge from the hospital
  • hemoglobin A1c [ Time Frame: during 3 months following hospitalization ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Change in daily mean blood glucose in a 3 month period after discharge from the hospital
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01792830 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Readmission Rate to the Hospital [ Time Frame: 3 months after discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of subjects that were readmitted to the hospital 3 months after discharge
  • Hypoglycemic Events [ Time Frame: 3 months after discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of subjects that experienced hypoglycemia, defined as blood glucose levels ≤70 mg/dl
  • Incidence Rates for Post-operative Complications [ Time Frame: 3 months after discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of complications including infections, wound infections, readmissions
  • Severe Hypoglycemic Events [ Time Frame: 3 months after discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of subjects that experienced severe hypoglycemia, defined as blood glucose levels ≤ 40 mg/dl
  • Hyperglycemic Events [ Time Frame: 3 months after discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Number of subjects that experienced hyperglycemia, defined as blood glucose levels ≥ 140 mg/dl
  • hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: during 3 months after hospitalization ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    frequency of hypoglycemia (BG</= 60)
  • severe hyperglycemia [ Time Frame: during the 3 months following discharge ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    frequency of severe hyperglycemia (BG>/=300 mg/dl)
  • severe hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: during 3 months after hospitalization ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    frequency of hypoglycemia (BG</= 40)
  • readmissions [ Time Frame: within 3 months after hospitalization ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    number of hospital readmissions after discharge from the hospital
  • emergency room visits [ Time Frame: within 3 months after hospitalization ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    number of emergency room visits after discharge from the hospital
  • Postoperative complications [ Time Frame: within 3 months after hospitalization ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    number of postoperative complications after discharge from the hospital
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Efficacy and Safety of a Glargine-based Hospital Discharge Algorithm in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Patients
Prospective Study Aim to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of a Glargine-based Hospital Discharge Algorithm in Cardiac Surgery Patients With Perioperative Hyperglycemia
Most coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients develop high blood sugar while they are in the hospital. No studies have shown what the best insulin regimen is for CABG patients with type 2 diabetes is after going home from the hospital. Patients with high blood sugar and diabetes after cardiac bypass surgery will be followed for 3 months to look at how well their treatment(s) for diabetes work after discharge. Patients with diabetes will be discharged on oral antidiabetic drugs or with insulin glargine injections based on their sugar control. Patients with admission HbA1c < 7% (a laboratory value that shows the average blood sugar level in the body over 3 months) will be discharged on the same diabetes medications that they used before coming to the hospital. Those with an HbA1c between 7% and 9% will be discharged on insulin glargine at 50%-80% of the dose used in the hospital and oral antidiabetic drugs. Those with an HbA1c > 9% will be discharged on glargine at 80-100% of the dose used in the hospital in addition to oral antidiabetic drugs or with insulin glargine and insulin glulisine. The primary outcome will be a change in HbA1c at 4 and 12 weeks after discharge.

Hospital discharge represents a critical time for ensuring a safe transition to the outpatient setting and reducing the need for emergency department visits and re-hospitalization. Poor coordination of patient care and education on insulin administration at the time of patient discharge to home may be associated with medical errors that may increase risk of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and hospital readmission. No prospective studies have examined the impact of a discharge treatment regimen after cardiac surgery. Therefore, this study aims to determine the efficacy and safety of an HbA1c based treatment algorithm in controlling blood glucose (BG) after discharge. The total duration of the study is 3 months.

This study will include diabetic and non-diabetic subjects who participated in the American Diabetes Association (ADA) trial entitled "Intensive Insulin Therapy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery." The ADA study is a two-arm randomized multicenter, open-label controlled trial aimed to determine if intensive insulin control with a BG target of 100-140mg/dl will reduce perioperative complications compared to a conventional BG control with a target of 141-180 mg/dl in hyperglycemic subjects who undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).

Treatment recommendations at discharge:

  • Patients with admission HbA1c < 7%:

    • Patients without a history of diabetes not requiring subcutaneous (SC) insulin in the hospital will be discharged on no antidiabetic therapy.
    • Patients without a history of diabetes requiring SC insulin therapy in the hospital will be discharged on metformin monotherapy. A patient without a history of diabetes who requires SC insulin is likely a newly diagnosed diabetic. The HbA1c value will be important to confirm the diagnosis. If the HbA1c is >6.5%, he/she will be diagnosed with diabetes. We do not anticipate that a patient without a history of diabetes and with an HbA1c <6.5% will require insulin treatment or oral agents long-term. Those patients will be discharged on no anti diabetic therapy with repeated testing after discharge to rule out diabetes.
    • Patients with a history of diabetes will be discharged on their same outpatient antidiabetic regimen (diet, oral antidiabetic agents and/or insulin).
    • Assure there are no contraindications to oral agents (i.e.Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and heart failure; metformin and renal failure or heart failure).
  • Patients with Admission HbA1c between 7% and 9%:

    • Treatment naïve patients not on any pharmacologic treatment prior to admission will be discharged on metformin monotherapy or a combination of metformin and a single dose of basal (glargine) insulin at 50% of total daily hospital dose.
    • Patients treated with oral antidiabetic agents or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) analogs prior to admission will be discharged on pre-admission oral antidiabetic therapy plus a single dose of glargine insulin at 50% of the total daily hospital dose.
    • Patients treated with combination of oral antidiabetic agents and basal insulin (NPH insulin also known as Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin, glargine, detemir) prior to admission will be discharged on pre-admission oral antidiabetic therapy plus a single dose of glargine insulin or with basal bolus insulin regimen at 50% of total daily hospital dose.
    • Patients not to be treated with oral agents will be discharged on glargine monotherapy or basal bolus at 100% of inpatient total daily dose.
    • Admission HbA1c ≥ 9% prior to admission:
    • Discharge on basal bolus regimen at same inpatient total daily insulin dose.
    • Basal insulin (glargine) once daily, at the same time of the day.
    • Rapid-acting insulin (glulisine) before meals.
    • Alternative treatment: If no contraindications to oral agents (i.e., Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and heart failure; metformin and renal failure) restart oral agents in combination to glargine once daily at 80% of total daily hospital dose.
Interventional
Phase 3
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Poor Glycemic Control
  • Drug: Metformin

    Metformin is an oral antidiabetic agent used to control high blood glucose levels and is given in divided doses with meals. During treatment initiation and dose titration, the patient's blood glucose levels will be used to determine the therapeutic response to metformin and identify the minimum effective dose for the patient.

    Patients without a history of diabetes and admission HbA1c < 7% requiring SC insulin therapy in the hospital will be discharged on metformin monotherapy.

    Treatment naïve patients with an HbA1c between 7% and 9% prior to admission will be discharged on metformin monotherapy or a combination of metformin and a single dose of subcutaneous insulin.

    Other Name: Glucophage
  • Drug: Glargine insulin

    Glargine is a recombinant human insulin analog that exhibits a constant glucose-lowering profile over 24 hours and permits once-daily dosing. It is administered subcutaneously once a day at the same time every day.

    Patients with an HbA1c between 7% and 9% requiring subcutaneous insulin therapy in the hospital will be discharged on oral metformin and a single dose of glargine insulin at 50% of total daily hospital dose.

    Patients with an HbA1c > 9% will be discharged on oral metformin and a single dose of glargine insulin at 80% of total daily hospital dose.

    Other Name: Lantus
  • Drug: Glulisine
    Glulisine is an injectable, recombinant insulin analog. The total daily dose varies between 0.5 to 1 unit/kg/day depending on the levels of blood glucose. Glulisine will be given within 15 minutes before a meal or within 20 minutes after starting a meal.
    Other Name: Apidra
  • No Intervention: Control HbA1c < 7%
    Subjects not requiring coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), with no history of diabetes with HbA1c <7% not requiring subcutaneous insulin in the hospital will be discharged on no antidiabetic therapy.
  • Active Comparator: Diabetic/ Metformin and 50-Glargine HbA1c 7%- 9%
    Subjects requiring coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with a history of diabetes with HbA1c between 7% and 9% requiring subcutaneous insulin therapy in the hospital will be discharged on oral metformin and a single dose of basal (glargine) insulin at 50% of total daily hospital dose.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Metformin
    • Drug: Glargine insulin
  • Active Comparator: Diabetic/ Metformin and 80-Glargine HbA1c 7%-9%%
    Subjects requiring coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with a history of diabetes with HbA1c 7%- 9% will be discharged on oral metformin and a single dose of basal (glargine) insulin at 80% of total daily hospital dose or with basal bolus regimen at same inpatient total daily insulin dose.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Metformin
    • Drug: Glargine insulin
  • Active Comparator: No diabetes/ Metformin only
    Subjects requiring coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with no history of diabetes with HbA1c <7% and persistent hyperglycemia requiring subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy in the hospital will be discharged on oral metformin.
    Intervention: Drug: Metformin
  • Active Comparator: Diabetic/antidiabetic regimen
    Subjects requiring coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with a history of diabetes with HbA1c <7% will be discharged on their same outpatient antidiabetic regimen. Subjects will receive one of the three treatment options based on their blood glucose levels: Metformin alone, both metformin and glargine insulin or glargine alone.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Metformin
    • Drug: Glargine insulin
  • Active Comparator: No diabetes/ Insulin only
    Subjects requiring coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with no history of diabetes with HbA1c <7% and persistent hyperglycemia will be given subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy in the hospital.
    Intervention: Drug: Glargine insulin
  • Active Comparator: Diabetes/Insulin only
    Subjects requiring coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with an admission HbA1c >9% and persistent hyperglycemia will be given basal insulin (glargine) once daily, at the same time of the day and rapid-acting insulin (glulisine) before meals.
    Interventions:
    • Drug: Glargine insulin
    • Drug: Glulisine
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
175
February 2014
February 2014   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Males or females between the ages of 18 and 80 years undergoing primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG).
  2. Post surgical hyperglycemia (Blood glucose >140 mg/dl)
  3. Patients with and without a history of type 2 diabetes

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Patients with severely impaired renal function (serum creatinine ≥3.0 mg/dl or a glomerular filtration rate < 30 ml/min) or clinically significant hepatic failure.
  2. Subjects with acute hyperglycemic crises such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states.
  3. Moribund patients and those at imminent risk of death (brain death or cardiac standstill).
  4. Patients or next-to-kin with mental conditions rendering the subject or family member unable to understand the nature, scope, and possible consequences of the study.
  5. Female subjects who are pregnant or breast-feeding at time of enrollment into the study.
Both
18 Years to 80 Years
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
 
NCT01792830
IRB00056365
Yes
Not Provided
Not Provided
Guillermo Umpierrez, Emory University
Emory University
Not Provided
Principal Investigator: Guillermo E Umpierrez, MD Emory University
Emory University
September 2015

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP