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The Effects of Stretching Training on Arterial Function and Autonomic Control

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01741766
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 5, 2012
Last Update Posted : December 5, 2012
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Arturo Figueroa, Florida State University

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE December 3, 2012
First Posted Date  ICMJE December 5, 2012
Last Update Posted Date December 5, 2012
Study Start Date  ICMJE May 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date December 2011   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 4, 2012)
Blood pressure [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
Non-invasive measures of brachial and aortic blood pressure
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History No Changes Posted
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 4, 2012)
Arterial Stiffness [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
Using pulse wave velocity of the aorta, systemic, and legs
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: December 4, 2012)
  • Autonomic Function [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
    Heart rate variability, vascular sympathetic activity [low-frequency power of systolic BP variability], and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity will be assessed from electrocardiogram and beat-by-beat digital blood pressure
  • Pressure Wave Reflection [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]
    Using the augmentation index from radial tonometry
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Same as current
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE The Effects of Stretching Training on Arterial Function and Autonomic Control
Official Title  ICMJE The Effects of 8 Weeks of Stretching Training on Arterial Stiffness, Wave Reflection, Endothelial Function and Cardiac Autonomic Control.
Brief Summary

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension and abdominal obesity are associated with dysfunction of the main mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation, the autonomic nervous system and the vascular endothelium. Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are associated with increased arterial stiffness, which is an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. The recommended intervention for controlling BP in pre- and stage 1- hypertensive individuals is lifestyle modifications such as exercise, and not drug therapy.Although aerobic and resistance exercise has been shown to be beneficial for the cardiovascular system, special populations such as the elderly and obese may have physical and/or musculoskeletal limitations which may limit their participation in these exercise modalities.

Stretching is a form of exercise that is widely recommended for injury prevention. Among the benefits of stretching are an increased flexibility, enhanced muscular coordination, stress relief, improved range of motion and an improved posture. Previous studies have shown stretching training to increase arterial compliance and acutely increase sympathetic nerve activity. In addition, low flexibility levels have been found to be associated with arterial stiffness. Given that stretching of skeletal muscle causes an increase in sympathetic nerve activity; repetitive stimulation of sympathetic activity induced by habitual stretching, might chronically reduce resting sympathetic activity. The reduction in sympathetic activity might result in a decrease of arterial stiffness and blood pressure.

The investigators hypothesis is that 8 weeks of stretching training would reduce arterial stiffness, blood pressure and sympathetic activity in obese women. The investigators also hypothesize that the improved arterial function with stretching would be associated with increases in flexibility levels.

Detailed Description

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 8 weeks of stretching training on blood pressure,arterial stiffness, wave reflection, endothelial function and cardiovascular autonomic control. The specific aim of the study is:

- To evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of ST on arterial function and aortic hemodynamics by assessing arterial stiffness (aortic, systemic, and leg), aortic blood pressure and wave reflection, and autonomic function (heart rate variability, vascular sympathetic activity [low-frequency power of systolic BP variability], and baroreflex sensitivity)

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Condition  ICMJE
  • Obesity
  • Pre-hypertension
  • Hypertension
Intervention  ICMJE Other: Stretching Training
The stretching training intervention consists of 38 whole-body stretching exercises, 3 times per week for 8 wk. Each stretch will be held in place for 30 seconds, with a 15 seconds of rest in between stretches.
Study Arms  ICMJE
  • Experimental: Stretching Training
    Whole body stretching exercises 3 times per wk for 8 weeks
    Intervention: Other: Stretching Training
  • No Intervention: Control
    This arm involves not making any change to the subject's lifestyle at the moment of the start of the intervention and for 8 wk.
Publications * Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: December 4, 2012)
Original Actual Enrollment  ICMJE Same as current
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE December 2011
Actual Primary Completion Date December 2011   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • 50-65 years old
  • Blood pressure between 121/81 and 159/99 mmHg
  • Body mass index of 25-39.9
  • Sedentary or low active (less than 2 hr per wk)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Younger than 50 or older than 65 years of age
  • Body mass index lower than 25, or 40 or higher
  • Physically active or competitively active
  • Smoker
  • Systolic blood pressure higher than 160 mmHg
  • Use of hormone replacement therapy of less than 1 yr
  • Use of calcium channel blocker or beta blockers
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Known cardiovascular disease
Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 50 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE United States
Removed Location Countries  
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01741766
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE HSC2010.5615
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Arturo Figueroa, Florida State University
Study Sponsor  ICMJE Florida State University
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Study Director: Arturo Figueroa, M.D., Ph.D Florida State University
PRS Account Florida State University
Verification Date December 2012

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP