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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Adolescent Depression (TMSAD)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01731678
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 22, 2012
Last Update Posted : February 12, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Frank MacMaster, PhD, University of Calgary

Tracking Information
First Submitted Date  ICMJE November 3, 2012
First Posted Date  ICMJE November 22, 2012
Last Update Posted Date February 12, 2019
Actual Study Start Date  ICMJE November 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date April 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Current Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 21, 2012)
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [ Time Frame: Three weeks ]
A reduction of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 50% is considered positive response
Original Primary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Same as current
Change History Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01731678 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
Current Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Original Secondary Outcome Measures  ICMJE Not Provided
Current Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures
 (submitted: November 21, 2012)
  • Interim Analysis - rTMS tolerability scale [ Time Frame: After the first 10 patients are completed ]
    There will be an interim analysis to review safety, tolerability (as measured by our rTMS tolerability scale) after the first 10 rTMS patients. Should there be significant concerns, the team will terminate the study. Ten was selected as it is close to previous reports and should be informative.
  • Interim Analysis - Ham-D [ Time Frame: After the first 10 patients are completed ]
    There will be an interim analysis to review response (Ham-D) after the first 10 rTMS patients. Should there be significant concerns, the team will terminate the study. Ten was selected as it is close to previous reports and should be informative.
Original Other Pre-specified Outcome Measures Same as current
 
Descriptive Information
Brief Title  ICMJE Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Adolescent Depression
Official Title  ICMJE Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Adolescent Depression
Brief Summary

Major depression (or MDD) in adolescents is a major public health problem. MDD affects approximately 15% of adolescents; it is associated with impairment in social, family, and academic functioning, and it is a major risk factor for suicide - a leading cause of death in adolescents . Unfortunately, there is a paucity of treatment options for this age group. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the only class of medications approved for treating MDD in adolescents, but rates of remission following treatment with SSRIs are only 30 to 45 percent. Cognitive behavior therapy is associated with similar remission rates and access is limited. Most adolescents will require more than one therapeutic intervention in order to achieve full symptom control. Collectively, there is overwhelming evidence that additional treatment options are urgently needed to improve outcomes for teens with MDD. One novel treatment for adolescent MDD is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Studies in children have been limited (a total of 23 cases). This is surprising given the evidence suggesting younger adult subjects with MDD respond better to rTMS (56% response rate) than older subjects. This limited experience with rTMS for adolescent MDD represents a substantial gap in the knowledge, recently recognized in publications calling for further study of rTMS in adolescent depression. Most importantly, the mechanism of action of rTMS in adolescent MDD is not well understood. The objective of this application is to develop an understanding of the brain alterations associated with the positive clinical changes that occur with rTMS in adolescent MDD. Such knowledge will provide the basis for pursuing rTMS for adolescent MDD as a rational therapeutic technique.

Specific Aim: To compare the effect of rTMS on DLPFC glutamate concentration in adolescent MDD. The investigators hypothesize an increase (normalization to controls) in DLPFC glutamate after three weeks of rTMS. Furthermore, the change in glutamate concentration will correlate with a change in MDD symptoms.

Detailed Description

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify neuroimaging, physiological, and clinical predictors of response, remission, and recovery to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in youth with treatment resistant major depressive disorder.

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major public health problem in adolescents. Unfortunately, there are no effectively targeted treatment options for this age group. Current remedies are limited in their effectiveness in youth with response and remission rates no greater than 60 to 30% respectively and treatment effects are not sustained throughout the life cycle. Further, ongoing controversies persist regarding the safety of antidepressants in youth. Current interventions were developed to solely target the symptoms of rather than the underlying neurobiology. Most importantly, there is no way to accurately predict an individual patient's response to interventions. Consequently, there is a critical need for optimally targeted interventions that directly address the relevant pathophysiology of depression.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is effective in adults with depression. rTMS is twice as likely to result in response (relative risk or RR: 2.35 [95% confidence interval or CI: 1.70-3.25]) and remission (RR: 2.24 [95% CI: 1.53-3.27] than a sham procedure Evidence in youth is also encouraging, with a 66% response rate in our pilot data (see Summary of Progress). The DLPFC plays a critical role in emotional regulation, directly connecting it to depressive symptomology. Our lab and others have clearly implicated structural and functional deficits in the DLPFC in youth with MDD. What is not known is what biomarkers best predict response, remission, and recovery with rTMS in youth with treatment resistant MDD. As response is not universal, this is a significant gap in our knowledge. Our basic model is that rTMS increases expression of BDNF, up-regulates activity of endocannabinoids, increases glutamate concentrations, and increases DLPFC activity - correcting the deficit seen in MDD. These biologic changes enhance executive control of mood state (see our pilot data in the Summary of Progress). These positive effects may be moderated by comorbidity (i.e., social phobia) and genotype (i.e., BDNF). How this model fits with response, remission, and recovery has yet to be fully tested and this information has the potential to be directly clinically meaningful. The central aim of the project is to evaluate predictors of rTMS response, remission, and recovery based on integrated neuroimaging, physiological, and clinical measures. While not a clinical trial per se (efficacy is not the primary outcome measure), we will use a non-randomized sham lead in to a single active (rTMS) arm study design as a framework for biomarker discovery.

To accomplish this goal, we will pursue the following specific aims: The primary aim is to identify baseline neuroimaging, physiological, and clinical predictors of response to 3 weeks of rTMS treatment in adolescents with treatment resistant MDD.

Study Type  ICMJE Interventional
Study Phase  ICMJE Not Applicable
Study Design  ICMJE Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Masking Description:
Open label rTMS
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Condition  ICMJE Major Depressive Disorder
Intervention  ICMJE Procedure: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
The standardized treatment location will be the left DLPFC. Anatomical T1 images from the pre-intervention MRI will be loaded into our Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) lab neuronavigation software (Brainsight2, Rogue Research, Montreal). Following 3D co-registration of the TMS coil with the patient's MRI images and head, the coil will be placed over the left DLPFC (tangential to scalp, angle of 45 degrees to midline). Interventional repetitive TMS (rTMS) (Magstim Rapid2, Wales, UK) will consist of 40 suprathreshold (120% RMT) pulses over 4 seconds (10 Hz) with an inter-train interval of 26 seconds. Treatment sessions will last 37.5 minutes (75 trains/3000 pulses). Treatments will occur on each weekday for three weeks (15 days total).
Study Arms  ICMJE Experimental: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
The standardized treatment location will be the left DLPFC. Anatomical T1 images from the pre-intervention MRI will be loaded into our Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) lab neuronavigation software (Brainsight2, Rogue Research, Montreal). Following 3D co-registration of the TMS coil with the patient's MRI images and head, the coil will be placed over the left DLPFC (tangential to scalp, angle of 45 degrees to midline). Interventional repetitive TMS (rTMS) (Magstim Rapid2, Wales, UK) will consist of 40 suprathreshold (120% RMT) pulses over 4 seconds (10 Hz) with an inter-train interval of 26 seconds. Treatment sessions will last 37.5 minutes (75 trains/3000 pulses). Treatments will occur on each weekday for three weeks (15 days total).
Intervention: Procedure: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Publications * MacMaster FP, Croarkin PE, Wilkes TC, McLellan Q, Langevin LM, Jaworska N, Swansburg RM, Jasaui Y, Zewdie E, Ciechanski P, Kirton A. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Youth With Treatment Resistant Major Depression. Front Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 29;10:170. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00170. eCollection 2019.

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Recruitment Information
Recruitment Status  ICMJE Completed
Actual Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: January 27, 2017)
42
Original Estimated Enrollment  ICMJE
 (submitted: November 21, 2012)
50
Actual Study Completion Date  ICMJE December 2018
Actual Primary Completion Date April 2018   (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Eligibility Criteria  ICMJE

Inclusion Criteria:

  • age (12-22 years),
  • MDD failing to respond to at least one SSRI trial (minimum 8 weeks treatment at an adequate dose; determined retrospectively), and
  • informed consent. Healthy controls with no psychiatric history (who do not receive rTMS) will undergo MRI scans to allow for comparison with MDD patients.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • previous seizures or epilepsy,
  • hypertension,
  • additional neurological or psychiatric diagnoses (specifically: bipolar disorder, psychosis, pervasive developmental disorder, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder).

As 3T MRI will be used, pregnancy is exclusionary.

Sex/Gender  ICMJE
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Ages  ICMJE 12 Years to 21 Years   (Child, Adult)
Accepts Healthy Volunteers  ICMJE Yes
Contacts  ICMJE Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Listed Location Countries  ICMJE Canada
Removed Location Countries  
 
Administrative Information
NCT Number  ICMJE NCT01731678
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJE E-24656
Has Data Monitoring Committee No
U.S. FDA-regulated Product Not Provided
IPD Sharing Statement  ICMJE Not Provided
Responsible Party Frank MacMaster, PhD, University of Calgary
Study Sponsor  ICMJE University of Calgary
Collaborators  ICMJE Not Provided
Investigators  ICMJE
Principal Investigator: Frank P MacMaster, PhD University of Calgary
PRS Account University of Calgary
Verification Date February 2019

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP