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Gentian Violet Vs. Nystatin Oral Suspension for Treatment of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT01427738
First received: November 3, 2010
Last updated: February 12, 2015
Last verified: February 2015

November 3, 2010
February 12, 2015
June 2011
September 2012   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Number of Participants With Clinical Efficacy [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
The primary endpoint is clinical efficacy defined as cure (absence of lesions) or improvement (a decrease in severity of lesions) after 14 days of treatment. The oral cavity will be split arbitrarily into 6 sites: left lower and upper labial mucosa and buccal mucosa, right lower and upper labial mucosa and buccal mucosa, hard palate, soft palate, tongue (dorsum, lateral, and ventral), and floor of mouth. Severity is scored using a scoring system from 0 to 3 (0 corresponds to absence of lesions, and 3 corresponds to presence of extensive confluent lesions) which leads to a composite severity score ranging from 0 to 18 after adding up the scores from all 6 sites. Complete success is assigned if the composite score after treatment equals to 0. Improved/partial response is assigned if the composite score after treatment is less than the baseline score. The blinded evaluator scores the severity of lesions by examining different lesion characteristics.
Clinical efficacy [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
The clinical efficacy of topical GV solution compared to nystatin oral suspension in the treatment of OC, as evidenced by pseudomembranous candidiasis, in HIV-infected adult participants.
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01427738 on ClinicalTrials.gov Archive Site
  • Number of Participant With Symptom [ Time Frame: after 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Symptoms were assessed using a visual analog scale where the level of discomfort and pain were recorded and quantified using a scoring system from 0 to 3. 0=no discomfort/pain; 1=mild discomfort/pain; 2=Moderate discomfort/pain; 3=Severe discomfort/pain.
  • Quantitative Yeast Colony Counts [ Time Frame: At weeks 0, 2, 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    If quantitative yeast culture yielding < 20 CFU/mL of Candida spp., then we call this mycological success
  • Tolerance [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The investigators will measure tolerance using a scale from 0 to 3 (0=No side effects experienced, no changes in treatment; 1=Some side effects experienced, but not enough to modify treatment; 2=Some side effects experienced, resulted in treatment interruption; 3=Side effects experienced, resulted in treatment discontinuation.)
  • Number of Participants Who Were Adherent. [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Adherence was reported as a dichotomous variable (adherence vs. non-adherence). Participants who have missing doses less than 15% will be considered as adherent, i.e., if a participant is in the GV arm, then the cutoff point is 28*0.15=4 doses; and for the nystatin arm is 56*0.15=8 doses.
  • Self-Assessment of General Health [ Time Frame: Weeks 0, 6 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Participants rated their general health on two scales. One is a five point scale ranging from 1 to 5 (1=Excellent; 2=Very Good; 3=Good; 4=Fair; 5=Poor)
  • Number of Participants Who Found GV and Nystatin Acceptable. [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Acceptability was defined as the willingness to use the drug if it is proven effective to treat oral candidiasis. Participants were asked whether or not they would be willing to use the assigned treatment via questionnaires.
  • Symptom [ Time Frame: after 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Symptoms will be assessed using a visual analog scale where the level of discomfort and pain will be recorded and quantified using a scoring system from 0 to 3
  • Quantitative yeast colony counts [ Time Frame: at week 2, 6, or 13 visits ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    If quantitative yeast culture yielding < 20 CFU/mL of Candida spp., then we call this mycological success
  • Emergence of fungal resistance [ Time Frame: If there is reappearance of signs or symptoms of OC between weeks 2 and 8 ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    To determine if GV and nystatin have the potential for the development of resistance
  • Emergence of adverse events [ Time Frame: during the 14 day treatment period ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
    Safety will be evaluated by summarizing the nature and rate of adverse events within each arm
  • Cost of treatment [ Time Frame: after 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Assessment of the cost and efficacy of the treatment options will aid policy makers in resource-limited settings in choosing the most cost-effective strategies
  • Tolerance [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    The investigators will measure tolerance using a scale from 0 to 3 (0=No side effects experienced, no changes in treatment; 1=Some side effects experienced, but not enough to modify treatment; 2=Some side effects experienced, resulted in treatment interruption; 3=Side effects experienced, resulted in treatment discontinuation.)
  • Adherence [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Adherence will be reported as a dichotomous variable (adherence vs. non-adherence). Participants who have missing doses less than 15% will be considered as adequate adherence, i.e., if a participant is in the GV arm, then the cutoff point is 28*0.15=4 doses; and for the nystatin arm is 56*0.15=8 doses.
  • Self-Assessment [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Participants will rate their general health on two scales. One is a five point scale ranging from 1 to 5 (1=Excellent; 2=Very Good; 3=Good; 4=Fair; 5=Poor) and is a rating scale from 0 (defined as "death or worse possible health") to 100 (defined as "perfect or best possible health").
  • Acceptability of GV and nystatin [ Time Frame: After 14 days of treatment ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Acceptability will be defined as the willingness to use the drug if it is proven effective to treat oral candidiasis. Participants will be asked whether or not they are willing to use the assigned treatment via questionnaires.
Not Provided
Not Provided
 
Gentian Violet Vs. Nystatin Oral Suspension for Treatment of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
A Phase III, Open-Label, Randomized, Assessment-Blinded Clinical Trial to Compare the Safety and Efficacy of Gentian Violet Oral Solution to That of Nystatin Oral Suspension for the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV-1 Infected Participants in Non-U.S. Settings

The purpose of this study was to see which one of two medicines (topical gentian violet [GV] or nystatin oral suspension) was better than the other in treating Oral Candidiasis (OC). This was measured by whether the study participant still had OC or sores in his/her mouth after 14 days of treatment. Also, safety and tolerability of GV and nystatin in the treatment of OC were assessed.

A5265 was a phase III, open-label (both the researchers and participants know which treatment was being administered) clinical trial to compare the safety and efficacy of topical GV to that of oral nystatin suspension. Male and female HIV-1 positive participants ≥ 18 years of age were randomized (as if by the toss of a coin) with equal probability and stratified by CD4+ T-cell counts and the use of antiretroviral therapy at the time of study entry to receive either topical GV solution (5 mL swish and gargle for 1 minute and spit two times daily) or nystatin oral suspension (5 mL swish for 1 minute and swallow four times daily) for 14 days. Therapy was considered as failed if participants have no clinical improvement (assessed by severity of pseudomembranous candidiasis) during either treatment regimen. Evaluation of signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis was done by an evaluator who was blinded to the treatment assignment. A total of 494 participants was expected to enroll in the study but due to early study closure only 221 enrolled; and participants are expected to be on the study for about 13 weeks.

Interventional
Phase 3
Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
HIV-1 Infection
  • Drug: Gentian Violet
    Participants were administered topical Gentian violet solution, orally, twice daily for 14 days.
  • Drug: Nystatin oral suspension
    Participants were administered Nystatin oral suspension 4 times a day for 14 days.
  • Experimental: Arm A: Topical GV solution
    Topical GV 0.00165% solution (5 mL swish and gargle for 1 minute and expectorate [spit] 2 times per day [BID]) for 14 days
    Intervention: Drug: Gentian Violet
  • Active Comparator: Arm B: Nystatin oral suspension
    Nystatin oral suspension (5 mL of 100,000 units/mL swish for 1 minute and swallow 4 times per day [QID]) for 14 days
    Intervention: Drug: Nystatin oral suspension
Not Provided

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
 
Completed
221
January 2014
September 2012   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • HIV-1 infection, documented by any licensed rapid HIV test or HIV enzyme or chemiluminescence immunoassay (E/CIA) test kit at any time prior to study entry and confirmed by licensed Western blot or a second antibody test by a method other than the initial rapid HIV and/or E/CIA, or by HIV-1 antigen, plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load.
  • Pseudomembranous candidiasis documented by a complete oral exam (i.e., white or yellow spots or plaques with an underlying erythematous base, located in any part of the oral cavity) at the screening visit. Participants with documented angular chelitis and/or erythematous candidiasis without pseudomembranous candidiasis were not eligible to enroll in the study.
  • If on an antiretroviral therapy (ART), initiation of regimen at least 12 weeks prior to study entry, and willingness of participant to remain on current ART regimen until the study-defined 14-day treatment period was complete. NOTE: Participants who were not ART-naïve and not on ART were eligible to participate in the study if they did not intend to initiate ART during the study- defined 14-day treatment period.
  • CD4+ cell count obtained within 30 days prior to study entry at a DAIDS-approved laboratory.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Documented or presumptive signs or symptoms of esophageal candidiasis (e.g., dysphagia) during the screening period unless endoscopic examination of the esophagus was performed, and fungal esophagitis were excluded.
  • Use of any investigational drug currently or within 30 days prior to study entry. NOTE: For purposes of this study, drugs available under an FDA-authorized expanded access program was NOT considered investigational.
  • Concurrent vaginal candidiasis within 21 days prior to study entry.
  • Use of inhaled or systemic corticosteroids within 14 days prior to study entry.
  • Use of any antifungal agents within 30 days prior to study entry.
  • Anticipated need for systemic or oral/topical antifungal agents for other diagnoses within the study-defined 14-day treatment period.
  • Intend to initiate ART during the screening period, at study entry, or within the study-defined 14-day treatment period.
  • Intend to use any additional oral topical treatments within the study- defined 14-day treatment period.
  • Known allergy/sensitivity or any hypersensitivity to components of study drugs or their formulation.
  • Active drug or alcohol use or dependence that, in the opinion of the site investigator, would interfere with adherence to study requirements.
  • Serious illness, in the opinion of the site investigator, requiring systemic treatment.
  • Hospitalization within 30 days prior to study entry for HIV or HIV-related conditions.
  • Previous or current history of porphyria.
  • Presence of oral warts during the screening period or at the study entry visit before randomization.
  • Current wearing of full dentures or a maxillary partial denture at study entry
Both
18 Years and older
No
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
Botswana,   India,   Kenya,   Malawi,   South Africa,   Uganda,   Zimbabwe
 
NCT01427738
ACTG A5265, 1U01AI068636
Yes
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Study Chair: Robert A Salata, MD Case CRS
Principal Investigator: James G Hakim, MD UZ- Parirenyatwa CRS
Principal Investigator: Tim Hodgson, MD Eastman Dental Hospital
Principal Investigator: Richard J Jurevic, DDS, PhD Case CRS
Principal Investigator: Pranab K Mukherjee, PhD, MSc Case CRS
Principal Investigator: Cissy M Kityo, MBChB, MSc JCRC CRS
Principal Investigator: Rana Traboulsi, MD Case CRS
Principal Investigator: Srikanth P Tripathy, MD, MBBS NARI Pune CRS
Principal Investigator: Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Phd, MSc Case Western Reserve University
AIDS Clinical Trials Group
February 2015

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP