Now Available: Final Rule for FDAAA 801 and NIH Policy on Clinical Trial Reporting

Effect of Sedation on Diagnostic Injections

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
Johns Hopkins University Identifier:
First received: April 25, 2011
Last updated: May 19, 2014
Last verified: April 2011

April 25, 2011
May 19, 2014
March 2011
February 2013   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Pain Score [ Time Frame: through 6 hours after injection ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
pain diary using 0-10 scale, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain imaginable
Pain Score [ Time Frame: through 6 hours after injection ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
pain diary using 0-10 scale
Complete list of historical versions of study NCT01472835 on Archive Site
  • Pain Score [ Time Frame: 1-month ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scale
  • Procedure-related Pain Score [ Time Frame: 1 day ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    0-10 pain scale, with 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain imaginable
  • Oswestry Disability Index [ Time Frame: 1-month ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Measure of functional capacity on a scale ranging from 0% to 100%, with 0% signifying no disability
  • Satisfaction [ Time Frame: 1 day ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    5-point Likert scale
  • Pain Score [ Time Frame: 1-month ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    0-10 NRS scale
  • Procedure-related Pain Score [ Time Frame: Recorded immediately after injection ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    0-10 scale
  • Oswestry Disability Index [ Time Frame: 1-month ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    Measure of functional capacity
  • Satisfaction [ Time Frame: 6 hours post-procedure ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
    5-point Likert scale
Not Provided
Not Provided
Effect of Sedation on Diagnostic Injections
Randomized, Cross-over Study Evaluating the Effect of Sedation on Pain Relief After Diagnostic Injections
Interventional pain procedures have diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic value. It is well-documented that the reference standard for identifying a pain generator is a low-volume block performed with local anesthetic, with or without steroid. Many factors may increase the false positive (FP) rate of diagnostic and prognostic nerve blocks; however, the use of sedation is the most controversial and remediable. Proponents of sedation argue that it has little effect on the rate of positive diagnostic blocks, and may even reduce the false-negative rate. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of intravenous sedation on pain relief and the "false-positive rate" after diagnostic nerve blocks.
Sixty-eight patients with sacroiliac (SI) joint or sympathetically-maintained pain will be randomized in a crossover fashion to receive diagnostic nerve blocks either with or without intravenous sedation. Among those who obtain some benefit and return for a 2nd block, this 2nd procedure will be done with sedation if the first was done without sedation, and vice versa. Midazolam and fentanyl will be used for intravenous sedation, titrated to anxiolysis and analgesia. Pain scores (0-10 numerical rating scale, or NRS) and an activity log will be recorded over the 8-hours following the blocks via a pain diary. The first follow-up visit will be 4 weeks after the procedure. Patients who obtain some benefit but continue to report significant pain or who might otherwise benefit from a repeat procedure will have this second procedure performed with sedation if no sedation was given for the first procedure, and without sedation if sedation was administered for the first procedure. The post-procedure pain data will be recorded in the same fashion as the initial nerve block. The second follow-up visit will be 4 weeks after the 2nd block.
Not Provided
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
  • Sacroiliac Joint Pain
  • Sympathetically Maintained Pain
  • Drug: Midazolam
    Used for anxiolysis
  • Drug: Fentanyl
    Used for analgesia and as a sedative
  • Experimental: Sedation
    Pt will receive sedation with their procedure
    • Drug: Midazolam
    • Drug: Fentanyl
  • No Intervention: Control
    Patient will not receive sedation during procedure

*   Includes publications given by the data provider as well as publications identified by Identifier (NCT Number) in Medline.
February 2013
February 2013   (final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Chronic pain > 4 weeks but < 10 years in duration
  • Suspected SI joint or sympathetically-maintained pain based on history and physical exam
  • May benefit from a sacroiliac joint or sympathetic block
  • Pain on 0-10 NRS scale > 3/10 in intensity

Exclusion Criteria:

  • No previous interventional pain-alleviating injections for the same condition within the past 3 years
  • Uncontrolled coagulopathy
  • Pregnancy, which will be ruled out by a urine pregnancy test in women of childbearing age
  • Allergy to contrast dye or amide local anesthetics
  • Unstable medical or psychiatric condition (e.g. unstable angina, congestive heart failure or severe depression) that could preclude an optimal treatment response
  • Systemic infection
  • Age < 18 or > 75 years
18 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Contact information is only displayed when the study is recruiting subjects
United States
Not Provided
Not Provided
Steven P. Cohen, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Johns Hopkins University
Not Provided
Principal Investigator: Steven P Cohen, MD Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
April 2011

ICMJE     Data element required by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the World Health Organization ICTRP